The Best IOT Interview Questions & Answers

1. What is IoT?
Answer: IoT stands for Internet of Things. It is a network using which things can communicate with each other using the internet as a means of communication between them. All the things should be IP protocol enabled to have this concept possible. Not one but multiple technologies are involved to make IoT a great success.

2. What are the main Social and Cultural Impacts of the Internet Of Things (IoT)?
The IoT may create webs of connections that will fundamentally transform the way people and things interact with each other. The emerging cyberspace platform created by the IoT and SMAC has been described as potentially making cities like “computers” in the open air, where citizens engage with the city “in a real-time and ongoing loop of information.”

Some observers have proposed that the growth of IoT will result in a hyperconnected world in which the seamless integration of objects and people will cause the Internet to disappear as a separate phenomenon. In such a world, cyberspace and human space would seem to effectively merge into a single environment, with unpredictable but potentially substantial societal and cultural impacts.

3. Explain why energy consumption will be an issue when the Internet of Things is implemented?
Well, the implementation of the Internet of Things can benefit developed countries without many challenges. If the Internet of Things is implemented in an underdeveloped country or developing country then it has to face some of the practical issues. For example, a developing country might lack in providing quality electricity supply to its population at this point if the organizations are implementing Internet of things then it will be a big disaster. Because the Internet of Things will take a lot of energy consumption and if that’s the case the solution provided will not work as efficiently as possible.

4. Give me a real-time example of the Internet of Things application?

One of the best examples of the Internet of Things application is as follows:

You can be awake with the help of predefined alarm setup, but with the help of Internet of Things application, you let your brewer know that you are awake and it can start preparing a fresh cup of coffee for you. If technology can help you make your mornings fantastic it can do anything else.

5. What are the skills or expertise that someone must learn or have to be successful in the IoT field?
A few skills professionals need to have a basic understanding of are — electronic circuit design, microcontroller computing platforms, and programming languages preferably C and Python, networking, and communication technologies, cloud computing, and big data. IoT is a combination of multiple skills. A diversified skill set is more in demand in IoT. Professionals can choose any of the above-mentioned areas to gain expertise once they have an overall understanding of all the components of IoT, depending on their desired role.

6. What is the security concerns related to IoT? Is the present security infrastructure enough to handle the data security requirements of IoT?
Data privacy and security concerns are rising because of the exponential increase in the connected devices in homes, offices, and industries. These devices are vulnerable to hacking. There is a lot of concern in the mind of people about data being stolen from their devices. There are potentially three hack points: devices, network, and cloud. Data is moving in networks while it is at rest on devices and cloud. IoT endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Device designers and software developers are ensuring adequate security and privacy measures at the initial stage of design and development. ( oracle apex training online  )

7. How will IoT benefit the end-users?
IoT is continuously changing the way we live, work and entertain. Because of IoT, immense opportunities and possibilities are being created for businesses to innovate in services and products. It has the potential of impacting all the aspects of an end user’s life. Devices are being made context-aware by embedding intelligence into them. And not just devices, we are also embedding intelligence into the environment, and through this embedded intelligence we are enabling it to capture real-time data. This harnessing of intelligence will enhance and augment human capabilities to understand and improve the quality of their lives.

8. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Health Care Sector?
The IoT has many applications in the health care field, in both health monitoring and treatment, including telemedicine and telehealth. Applications may involve the use of medical technology and the Internet to provide long-distance health care and education. Medical devices, which can be wearable or non wearable, or even implantable, injectable, or ingestible, can permit remote tracking of a patient’s vital signs, chronic conditions, or other indicators of health and wellness.36 Wireless medical devices may be used not only in hospital settings but also in remote monitoring and care, freeing patients from sustained or recurring hospital visits. Some experts have stated that advances in healthcare IoT applications will be important for providing affordable, quality care to the aging U.S. population.

9. What will happen in terms of jobs losses and skills as IoT makes devices and robots more intelligent?
A Digital Skills Select Committee report to the House of Lords in February estimated that 35% of UK jobs would be lost to automation in the next 20 years. Does it echo the sort of thinking that Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee?s The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies predict. They answer that you need to switch skills but to do this you need to switch the schools too.

Will Franks agrees. He saw when he launched his business in 2004 that a massive shortage in relevant skills can impede progress, so he was forced to look overseas. The same he says will happen with IoT unless we get schools and colleges to start gearing courses to meet the challenges of tomorrow’s automated economy.

It is a huge challenge and one which is a top-three priority for Chi Onwuruh MP and Labour’s Digital Review. Digital inclusion, a data review and a focus on digital skills are she says essential.

Last July the Digital Skills Taskforce called for the Government to review skills development in schools and colleges. The Perkins Review in November last year also called for a review into developing engineering skills to boost the UK economy.

What is clear is that the jobs landscape will change dramatically in the next 20 years. But it will be a slow process and whether or not we are prepared to cope with it will depend as much on education policy as digital policy. The robots are coming but don’t hand your notice in just yet.

10. What sort of information does the Internet of Things objects communicate?
To be honest, it all depends on the sort of objects that are used within the process. For example An object with a single sensor, like a smart thermometer. With this device, the room temperature can be measured and the information is sent across to the remote weather monitoring center. Alternatively, let’s consider a wireless medical device, it is capable of taking multiple values or data like body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and any other variables are shared between the medical service provider via a computer or a smartphone.

So basically, it depends on the type of the device or the object is used in the network. ( hadoop training videos ) 

11. What is the Current Federal Regulatory Role of USA Government pertinent to Internet Of Things (IoT)?
There is no single federal agency that has overall responsibility for the IoT, just as there is no one agency with overall responsibility for cyberspace. Federal agencies may find the IoT useful in helping them fulfill their missions through a variety of applications such as those discussed in this report and elsewhere. Each agency is responsible under various laws and regulations for the functioning and security of its own IoT, although some technologies, such as drones, may also fall under some aspects of the jurisdiction of other agencies.

Various agencies have regulatory, sector-specific, and other mission-related responsibilities that involve aspects of IoT. For example, entities that use wireless communications for their IoT devices will be subject to allocation rules for the portions of the electromagnetic spectrum that they use.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocates and assigns spectrum for nonfederal entities.

  • In the Department of Commerce, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) fulfills that function for federal entities, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) creates standards, develops new technologies, and provides best practices for the Internet and Internet-enabled devices.
  • The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulates and enforces consumer protection policies, including for privacy and security of consumer IoT devices.
  • The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for coordinating security for the 16 critical infrastructure sectors. Many of those sectors use industrial control systems (ICS), which are often connected to the Internet, and the DHS National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) has an ICS Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) to help critical-infrastructure entities address ICS cybersecurity issues.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also has responsibilities concerning the cybersecurity of Internet-connected medical devices.
  • The Department of Justice (DOJ) addresses law-enforcement aspects of IoT, including cyberattacks, unlawful exfiltration of data from devices and/or networks, and investigation and prosecution of other computer and intellectual property crimes.
  • Relevant activities at the Department of Energy (DOE) include those associated with developing high-performance and green buildings, and other energy-related programs, including those related to smart electrical grids.
  • The Department of Transportation (DOT) has established an Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) to coordinate various programs and activities throughout DOT relating to the development and deployment of connected vehicles and systems, involving all modes of surface transportation. DOT mode-specific agencies also engage in ITS activities. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is involved in regulation and other activities relating to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and commercial systems (UAS).
  • The Department of Defense was a pioneer in the development of much of the foundational technology for the IoT. Most of its IoT deployment has related to its combat mission, both directly and for logistical and other support.

In addition to the activities described above, several agencies are engaged in research and development (R&D) related to the IoT:

  • .Like NIST, the National Science Foundation (NSF) engages in cyber-physical systems research and other activities that cut across various IoT applications.
  • The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program (NITRD), under the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), coordinates Federal agency R&D in networking and information technology. The NITRD Cyber-Physical Systems Senior Steering Group “coordinates programs, budgets and policy recommendations” for IoT R&D.
  • Other agencies involved in such R&D include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and several DOD agencies.
  • The White House has also announced a smart-cities initiative focusing on the development of research infrastructure, demonstration projects, and other R&D activities.  ( tableau training videos  )

12. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Energy Sector?
Within the energy sector, the IoT may impact both production and delivery, for example through facilitating monitoring of oil wellheads and pipelines. When IoT components are embedded into parts of the electrical grid, the resulting infrastructure is commonly referred to as the “smart grid”. This use of IoT enables greater control by utilities over the flow of electricity and can enhance the efficiency of grid operations. It can also expedite the integration of microgenerators into the grid.

Smart-grid technology can also provide consumers with greater knowledge and control of their energy usage through the use of smart meters in the home or office. Connection of smart meters to a building’s HVAC, lighting, and other systems can result in “smart buildings” that integrate the operation of those systems. Smart buildings use sensors and other data to automatically adjust room temperatures, lighting, and overall energy usage, resulting in greater efficiency and lower energy cost. Information from adjacent buildings may be further integrated to provide additional efficiencies in a neighborhood or larger division in a city.

13. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Agriculture Sector?
The IoT can be leveraged by the agriculture industry through precision agriculture, to optimize production and efficiency while reducing costs and environmental impacts. For farming operations, it involves analysis of detailed, often real-time data on weather, soil and air quality, water supply, pest populations, crop maturity, and other factors such as the cost and availability of equipment and labor. Field sensors test soil moisture and chemical balance, which can be coupled with location technologies to enable precise irrigation and fertilization. Drones and satellites can be used to take detailed images of fields, giving farmers information about the crop yield, nutrient deficiencies, and weed locations.

For ranching and animal operations, radio frequency identification (RFID) chips and electronic identification readers (EID) help monitor animal movements, feeding patterns, and breeding capabilities, while maintaining detailed records on individual animals. (IOT Interview Questions)

14. How Cybersecurity might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT), especially in the USA?
The security of devices and the data they acquire, process, and transmit is often cited as a top concern in cyberspace. Cyberattacks can result in theft of data and sometimes even physical destruction. Some sources estimate losses from cyberattacks, in general, to be very large?in the hundreds of billions or even trillions of dollars. As the number of connected objects in the IoT grows, so will the potential risk of successful intrusions and increases in costs from those incidents.

Cybersecurity involves protecting information systems, their components and contents, and the networks that connect them from intrusions or attacks involving theft, disruption, damage, or other unauthorized or wrongful actions. IoT objects are potentially vulnerable targets for hackers. Economic and other factors may reduce the degree to which such objects are designed with adequate cybersecurity capabilities built-in. IoT devices are small, are often built to be disposable, and may have limited capacity for software updates to address vulnerabilities that come to light after deployment. ( devops training  )

The interconnectivity of IoT devices may also provide entry points through which hackers can access other parts of a network. For example, a hacker might gain access first to a building thermostat, and subsequently to security cameras or computers connected to the same network, permitting access to and exfiltration or modification of surveillance footage or other information. Control of a set of smart objects could permit hackers to use their computing power in malicious networks called botnets to perform various kinds of cyberattacks.

Access could also be used for destruction, such as by modifying the operation of industrial control systems, as with the Stuxnet malware that caused centrifuges to self-destruct at Iranian nuclear plants. Among other things, Stuxnet showed that smart objects can be hacked even if they are not connected to the Internet. The growth of smart weapons and other connected objects within DOD has led to growing concerns about their vulnerabilities to cyberattack and increasing attempts to prevent and mitigate such attacks, including improved design of IoT objects. Cybersecurity for the IoT may be complicated by factors such as the complexity of networks and the need to automate many functions that can affect security, such as authentication. Consequently, new approaches to security may be needed for the IoT.

IoT cybersecurity will also likely vary among economic sectors and subsectors, given their different characteristics and requirements. Each sector will have a role in developing cybersecurity best practices, unique to its needs. The federal government has a role in securing federal information systems, as well as assisting with security of nonfederal systems, especially critical infrastructure. Cybersecurity legislation considered in the 114th Congress, while not focusing specifically on the IoT, would address several issues that are potentially relevant to IoT applications, such as information sharing and notification of data breaches.

15. What is a “Thing” in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
The “Thing” commonly referred to by the concept of the Internet of Things is any item that can contain an embedded, connected computing device. A “Thing” in the IoT could be a shipping container with an RFID tag or a consumer’s watch with a WiFi chip that sends fitness data or short messages to a server somewhere on the Internet.

16. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Infrastructure and Smart Cities Sector?
The capabilities of the smart grid, smart buildings, and it’s combined with IoT components in other public utilities, such as roadways, sewage and water transport and treatment, public transportation, and waste removal, can contribute to more integrated and functional infrastructure, especially in cities.

For example, traffic authorities can use cameras and embedded sensors to manage traffic flow and help reduce congestion. IoT components embedded in street lights or other infrastructure elements can provide functions such as advanced lighting control, environmental monitoring, and even assistance for drivers in finding parking spaces. Smart garbage cans can signal waste removal teams when they are full, streamlining the routes that garbage trucks take.

This integration of infrastructure and service components is increasingly referred to as smart cities, or other terms such as connected, digital, or intelligent cities or communities. Several cities in the United States and elsewhere have developed smart-city initiatives.

17. Why the Internet of Things(IoT) will be successful in the coming years?
As the telecommunication sector is becoming more extensive and efficient, broadband internet is widely available. With technological advancement, it is now much cheaper to produce necessary sensors with built-in wifi capabilities making connecting devices less costly.

Most importantly, smartphone usage has surpassed all the predicted limits and telecommunication sector is already working on its toes to keep their customers satisfied by improving their infrastructure. As IoT devices need no separate communication than the existing one building IoT tech is very cheap and highly achievable.

18. Which Companies and Organizations Support the Industrial IoT?
General Electric coined the term Industrial Internet in late 2012. It is effectively synonymous with the Industrial Internet of Things and abbreviated as Industrial IoT or IIoT.

Many other companies and organizations are realizing the potential and significance of the Industrial IoT. A recent study conducted by Appinions and published in Forbes listed RTI as the #1 most influential company for the Industrial Internet of Things. Other influencers included Google, Cisco, GE, Omron, DataLogic and Emerson Electric.

The Industrial Internet Consortium also advocates for the advancement of the Industrial IoT. It is a not-for-profit organization that manages and advances the growth of the Industrial IoT through the collaborative efforts of its member companies, industries, academic institutions, and governments. Founding members include AT&T, Cisco Systems Inc., General Electric, IBM and Intel.

19. What are the top 5 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications in the world?

1. Asset Tracking and/or Monitoring in some form or another (Stolen Vehicles, Fleet, Construction Equipment, Wood Pellets, Tank level monitoring, etc.) seems to be the biggest. Low data requirements, high volumes of devices, etc. It isn’t hot or particularly exciting, but it is changing the world in subtle ways and very quickly. New business models will spring from this.

2. Insurance Telematics is huge as if offers Insurance companies the opportunity to cut risk and drive better/more attractive pricing.

3. Utilities/Automated Meter Reading/Smart Grids – lots of regulation and investment into this at the moment. There a lot of national solutions as the requirements and business case are driven in very diverse ways.

4. Security has been an early adopter here. The requirements are quite heavy on the network as many of these applications have a fixed-line legacy.

5. Health has been out there for a while but hasn’t taken off. There are some exciting early adopters. Many of the established companies (largely built through acquisition) have some challenges moving quickly in this space, but when they get up to speed and the business models are established there will be a massive uptake.

6. Automotive is a big one – driven by consumers’ expectation of being always connected as well as regulation. ( python training  )

20. Can all IoT devices talk to each other? What is the Standard for Communication between these devices?
With so many companies working on different products, technologies and platforms, making all these devices communicate with each other is no small feat? seamless overall compatibility likely won’t happen.

Several groups are working to create an open standard that would allow interoperability among the various products. Among them are the AllSeen Alliance, whose members include Qualcomm, LG, Microsoft, Panasonic and Sony; and the Open Interconnect Consortium, which has the support of Intel, Cisco, GE, Samsung, and HP.

While their end goal is the same, there are some differences to overcome. For example, the OIC says the AllSeen Alliance doesn’t do enough in the areas of security and intellectual property protection. The AllSeen Alliance says that these issues have not been a problem for its more than 110 members.

It’s not clear how the standards battle will play out, though many believe we’ll end up with three to four different standards rather than a single winner (think iOS and Android).

In the meantime, one-way consumers can get around the problem is by getting a hub that supports multiple wireless technologies, such as the one offered by SmartThings.

21. What is the difference between the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine to Machine (M2M)?
Generally speaking, M2M could be considered a subset of IoT. M2M is like a line connecting 2 points, and IoT is like a network, a system composed of lots of M2M and triggering lots of interactions/activities.

Giving a simple definition to M2M which is transferring data from one machine to another one. It’s been used everywhere in our daily life. For example, entrance security. Just like using your employee card to unlock a door. When the security detector receives the ID from the employee card and then unlock the door once the ID is approved. This is M2M.

In this case, what IoT can offer? As mentioned, IoT is a network, is a system composed of lots of M2M and algorithms. When the system knows you are the person entering the office, it can turn on the light and the air conditioner of your partition, even it can adjust the most comfortable light level and temperature that you like the most from time to time after learning your behavior for some time. The system can get all the data from all the sensors and machines to know, for example, who and when enters the office, how much electricity you have consumed, what the environment makes you feel most comfortable, and other applications.

IoT will make facilities and things smarter and make people’s life more convenient. Not only machine to machine, but also human to machine, machine to human, and so on.

22. What is the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)?
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in manufacturing.

Also known as the Industrial Internet, IIoT incorporates machine learning and big data technology, harnessing the sensor data, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrial settings for years. The driving philosophy behind the IIoT is that smart machines are better than humans at accurately, consistently capturing and communicating data. This data can enable companies to pick up on inefficiencies and problems sooner, saving time and money and supporting business intelligence efforts. In manufacturing specifically, IIoT holds great potential for quality control, sustainable and green practices, supply chain traceability and overall supply chain efficiency.

23. What is ZigBee Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Zig Bee is a low power consuming IEEE 802.15.4(2003) standard based specification, ZigBee is a brainchild of 16 automation companies. What makes it novel is the use of mesh networking which makes utilization of communication resources much more efficient. ZigBee based IoT nodes can connect to the central controller making use of in-between nodes for propagating the data. It makes transmission and handling of data robust. 

24. Give a few examples of the Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) on our lives?
To put things simply any object that can be connected will be connected by the IoT. This might not make sense for you on the forefront but it is of high value. With interconnected devices, you can better arrange your life and be more productive, safer, smarter and informed than ever before.

For instance, how easy it will be for you to start your day if your alarm clock is not only able to wake you up but also able to communicate with your brewer to inform it that you are awake at the same time notifies your geezer to start water heating. Or you wearable wrist health band keeps track of your vitals to inform you when you are most productive during the day. These are just a few examples but applications of the internet of things are numerous.

On large scale transportation, healthcare, defense, environment monitoring, manufacturing and every other field you can imagine of can be benefited from IoT. It is very hard to conceive the whole application domain of the internet of things at the moment but you can clearly understand why it is such an interesting and hot topic at the moment.

25. Why will the Internet of Things be successful in the coming years?
Well, the internet of things will be a huge hit in the coming years because of the availability of broadband internet. If you have observed in the last few years the broadband internet is got cheaper compared to the past and the availability has also reached to local environments. Also, the hardware systems and the manufacturing of the sensors have gone down a lot compared to the last few years. As the internet is the biggest factor that plays a positive role for the Internet of things success, with the combination of the right hardware and the internet it will be a massive success and this is why I think the Internet of things will be massive in next few years.

26. List out all the impacts of the Internet of Things will be experienced in the Transportation industry?
Well, nowadays most of the vehicles are equipped with GPS ( Global Positioning System) and ADAS ( Advanced Driver Assistance System) where all the information is captured from the vehicle and then analyzed accordingly and decisions are taken. For example, the application of emergency break based on the sensor data, ability to provide help for the user while parking the car and assisting him during this process. All of this application have made an impeccable change in terms of how the internet of things can help an individual and also the companies to do research and development to enhance their unique offerings to the customers to attract to their businesses. ( data science online training )

27. How would you best describe IoT? Why has it gained so much buzz in recent years?
The IoT can be best described as a network of objects embedded with sensors, computers, and actuators to acquire, process and analyze the data to improve the real-life environment. Internet of things is all about optimizing operational efficiencies through creating analytically rich data sets and automated analytical tools. Gartner has predicted that more than 50 billion devices will be connected to the internet by 2020. The global IoT market will be $14.4 trillion according to Cisco. The adoption of IoT is increasing at an exponential rate as it has the potential to deliver efficiency in processes and cost optimization to a broad spectrum of enterprise tasks.

28. How will the Internet of Things (IoT) impact the sustainability of Environment or Business?
Internet of Things (IoT) can significantly reduce carbon emissions by making business and industry more efficient. “By managing street lights more efficiently you can save approximately 40% of the energy used to make them run,” Will Franks says.

Bill Ruh, vice-president of GE Software, agrees. “We have created 40 applications,” says Ruh. “One of these, PowerUp, uses sensors to collect weather and performance data from wind turbines to enable operators to generate up to 5% more electricity without physically changing it, which generates 20% more profit for our customers.”

29. What are the important components of the Internet of Things?
Many people mistakenly think of IoT as an independent technology. Interestingly, the internet of things is being enabled by the presence of other independent technologies which make fundamental components of IoT.

The fundamental components that make the internet of things a reality are:-

1. Hardware: Making physical objects responsive and giving them the capability to retrieve data and respond to instructions

2. Software: Enabling the data collection, storage, processing, manipulating and instructing

3. Communication Infrastructure: Most important of all is the communication infrastructure which consists of protocols and technologies which enable two physical objects to exchange data.

30. What is GainSpan’s GS2000 Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?
GainSpan’s GS2000 is one such tech which used both ZigBee and Wi-Fi. It makes optimum use of power by putting the device into energy-saving standby mode when no data transmission is taking place. Only when the device is awaked or checked for connection failure the high power consumption connection of Wi-Fi is used.

31. How Energy Consumption might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Energy consumption can also be an issue. IoT objects need energy for sensing, processing, and communicating information. If objects isolated from the electric grid must rely on batteries, a replacement can be a problem, even if energy consumption is highly efficient. That is especially the case for applications using large numbers of objects or placements that are difficult to access. Therefore, alternative approaches such as energy harvesting, whether from solar or other sources, are being developed.

32. How High-Speed Internet might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Use and growth of the IoT can also be limited by the availability of access to high-speed Internet and advanced telecommunications services, commonly known as broadband, on which it depends. While many urban and suburban areas have access, that is not the case for many rural areas, for which private-sector providers may not find the establishment of the required infrastructure profitable, and government programs may be limited.

33. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Manufacturing Sector?
Integration of IoT technologies into manufacturing and supply chain logistics is predicted to have a transformative effect on the sector. The biggest impact may be realized in the optimization of operations, making manufacturing processes more efficient. Efficiencies can be achieved by connecting components of factories to optimize production, but also by connecting components of inventory and shipping for supply chain optimization.

Another application is predictive maintenance, which uses sensors to monitor machinery and factory infrastructure for damage. Resulting data can enable maintenance crews to replace parts before potentially dangerous and/or costly malfunctions occur.

34. How Safety issue might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT), especially in the USA?
Given that smart objects can be used both to monitor conditions and to control machinery, the IoT has broad implications for safety, concerning both improvements and risks. For example, objects embedded in pipelines can monitor both the condition of the equipment and the flow of contents. Among other benefits, that can help both to expedite shutoffs in the event of leaks and to prevent them through predictive maintenance.

Connected vehicles can help reduce vehicle collisions through crash avoidance technologies and other applications.110 Wireless medical devices can improve patient safety by permitting remote monitoring and facilitating adjustments in care.

However, given the complexities involved in some applications of IoT, malfunctions might in some instances result in catastrophic system failures, creating significant safety risks, such as flooding from dams or levees. Besides, hackers could potentially cause malfunctions of devices such as insulin pumps or automobiles, potentially creating significant safety risks. 

35. What is the top M2M application that is available in the world?

The acronym M2M application stands for Machine to Machine applications.

1. Asset tracking: This process has been tremendously changed the way how we track an individual object right from the production to deliver. With the help of Internet of Things tools and processes, a lot has been provided to the e-commerce organizations. Using these tools and process, e-commerce organizations have leverage a new approach of informing their customers about their product whereabouts and all of this is happening at a very low cost compared to the standard process that is implemented as of now.

2. Insurance Telematics: Insurance companies have been able to tailor a lot of different aspects into consideration while giving out any premium quotes to their customers. Thus considering all the different inputs to the application, the user will be able to define the right amount of premium keeping all his past data into consideration. This way has revolutionized the way insurance companies have been working so far.

36. What are the different sectors where the Internet of Things can add value to the current processes?
The Internet of Things process can be applied to any field where productivity, accuracy or process enhancement is needed. With the help of the technology and the smart hardware, all this can be executed in a fraction of the current operating cost.

Internet of things can be applied or already started applying their benefits to the following categories and hopefully, we will be seeing more in the future:

1. Agriculture
2. Manufacturing
3. Healthcare
4. Energy
5. Transportation
6. Security
7. Information development

37. What is the biggest difference between the Internet of Things and sensor businesses?
A sensor business does not require an active internet connection and can also perform without it. Whereas, IOT has control side related to it, which is essential to track, exchange the information from the sensor to the central unit within an active network.

38. What does WSN stand for in Internet of Things concept?
The acronym WSN stands for Wireless Sensor Network. It is considered to be the foundation of the Internet of Things applications.

39. What are the effects of the Internet of Things will have on human life?

The effects of the IOT are already happening and it will be more increased in the future.

It is used in how we apply breaks
It is used in the parking slot machines and at the toll gates
It is used in how we can park our cars
Enhancement in Productivity because of automating the manufacturing process
Process-oriented have been completely made automatic where persistence is given highest priority.

40. How Lack of Uniform Technical Standards might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Currently, there is no single universally recognized set of technical standards for the IoT, especially concerning communications, or even a commonly accepted definition among the various organizations that have produced IoT standards or related documents.

Many observers agree that a common set of standards will be essential for interoperability and scalability of devices and systems. However, others have expressed pessimism that a universal standard is feasible or even desirable, given the diversity of objects that the IoT potentially encompasses. Several different sets of de facto standards have been in development, and some observers do not expect formal standards to appear before 2017. Whether conflicts between standards will affect the growth of the sector as it did for some other technologies is not clear.

41. Who coined the term Internet of Things (IoT) and when?
The term Internet of Things is 16 years old. But the actual idea of connected devices had been around longer, at least since the 70s. Back then, the idea was often called “embedded internet” or “pervasive computing”. But the actual term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter&Gamble. Ashton who was working in supply chain optimization, wanted to attract senior management?s attention to a new exciting technology called RFID. Because the internet was the hottest new trend in 1999 and because it somehow made sense, he called his presentation “Internet of Things”.

Even though Kevin grabbed the interest of some P&G executives, the term Internet of Things did not get widespread attention for the next 10 years.

42. How Internet Addresses (IPv6) might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
A potential barrier to the development of IoT is the technical limitations of the version of the Internet Protocol (IP) that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that computers use to send and receive information via the Internet, including the unique address that each connected device or object must have to communicate. Version 4 (IPv4) is currently in widest use. It can accommodate about four billion addresses, and it is close to saturation, with few new addresses available in many parts of the world.

Some observers predict that Internet traffic will grow faster for IoT objects than any other kind of device over the next five years, with more than 25 billion IoT objects in use by 2020,76 and perhaps 50 billion devices altogether. IPv4 appears unlikely to meet that growing demand, even with the use of workarounds such as methods for sharing IP addresses.

Version 6 (IPv6) allows for a huge increase in the number of IP addresses. With IPv4, the maximum number of unique addresses, 4.2 billion, is not enough to provide even one address for each of the 7.3 billion people on Earth. IPv6, in contrast, will accommodate over 1038 addresses? more than a trillion per person.

It is highly likely that to accommodate the anticipated growth in the numbers of Internet-connected objects, IPv6 will have to be implemented broadly. It has been available since 1999 but was not formally launched until 2012. In most countries, fewer than 10% of IP addresses were in IPv6 as of September 2015. Adoption is highest in some European countries and in the United States, where adoption has doubled in the past year to about 20%.

Globally, adoption has doubled annually since 2011, to about 7% of addresses in mid-2015. While growth in adoption is expected to continue, it is not yet clear whether the rate of growth will be sufficient to accommodate the expected growth in the IoT. That will depend on several factors, including replacement of some older systems and applications that cannot handle IPv6 addresses, resolution of security issues associated with the transition, and availability of sufficient resources for deployment.

Efforts to transition federal systems to IPv6 began more than a decade ago. According to estimates by NIST, adoption for public-facing services has been much greater within the federal government than within industry or academia. However, adoption varies substantially among agencies, and some data suggest that federal adoption plateaued in 2012. Data were not available for this report on domains that are not public-facing, and it is not clear whether adoption of IPv6 by federal agencies will affect their deployment of IoT applications.

43. Why Should We Care about the Industrial IoT?
The Industrial IoT focuses strongly on intelligent cyber-physical systems. These systems comprise machines connected to computers that interpret, analyze and make decisions almost instantly, based on sensor data from many widely distributed sources.

The Industrial IoT enables the smart system in your car that brakes automatically when it detects an obstacle in the road. It enables the patient monitoring system in hospitals to track everything from a patient’s heart rate to their medication intake. It enables a mining machine or space robot to safely and efficiently operate where humans can’t.

The world is building more and more intelligent machines that interact with other machines, with their environments, with data centers, and with humans.

44. What are the important components that exist in the Internet of Things?

The important components that exist in the Internet of Things are as follows:

1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Verbal exchange infrastructure

45. From which professional backgrounds is it possible to make a shift to IoT?
Internet of things is a collection of many technologies. New roles and opportunities are being created with the exponential increase in the connected devices. Because of the increasing demand of internet of things, skills like electronic circuit design, application development, microcontroller programming, data analytics, and networking are also increasingly getting in demand. IoT is an inter-dependent technology and does not require an overall shift from your current roles and responsibilities. Professionals from any background can start their career in IoT with basic training.

46. What advice can you give to the students or professionals who are interested in a career in IoT?
The best advice is, “there couldn’t be a better time to redefine your careers”. Early entry into the emerging market will be better as most of the organizations are in exploratory mode. IoT has been disrupting existing business and markets. New opportunities are being created and at the same time, existing roles are becoming obsolete.

47. What kinds of information do the Internet of Things (IoT) objects communicate?
The answer depends on the nature of the object, and it can be simple or complex. For example, a smart thermometer might have only one sensor, used to communicate ambient temperature to a remote weather-monitoring center. A wireless medical device might, in contrast, use various sensors to communicate a person’s body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and other variables to a medical service provider via a computer or mobile phone.

Smart objects can also be involved in command networks. For example, industrial control systems can adjust manufacturing processes based on input from both other IoT objects and human operators. Network connectivity can permit such operations to be performed in “real-time”? that is, almost instantaneously.

Smart objects can form systems that communicate information and commands among themselves, usually in concert with computers they connect to. This kind of communication enables the use of smart systems in homes, vehicles, factories, and even entire cities.

Smart systems allow for automated and remote control of many processes. A smart home can permit remote control of lighting, security, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning), and appliances. In a smart city, an intelligent transportation system (ITS) may permit vehicles to communicate with other vehicles and roadways to determine the fastest route to a destination, avoiding traffic jams, and traffic signals can be adjusted based on congestion information received from cameras and other sensors.

Buildings might automatically adjust electric usage, based on information sent from remote thermometers and other sensors. An Industrial Internet application can permit companies to monitor production systems and adjust processes, remotely control and synchronize machinery operations, track inventory and supply chains, and perform other tasks.

IoT connections and communications can be created across a broad range of objects and networks and can transform previously independent processes into integrated systems. These integrated systems can potentially have substantial effects on homes and communities, factories and cities, and every sector of the economy, both domestically and globally.

48. How Remote Updation of Software might affect the Development and Implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Several other technical issues might impact the development and adoption of IoT. For example, if an object?s software cannot be readily updated securely, that could affect both function and security. Some observers have therefore recommended that smart objects have remote updating capabilities. However, such capabilities could have undesirable effects such as increasing power requirements of IoT objects or requiring additional security features to counter the risk of exploitation by hackers of the update features.

49. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on Economic Growth?
Several economic analyses have predicted that the IoT will contribute significantly to economic growth over the next decade, but the predictions vary substantially in magnitude. The current global IoT market has been valued at about $2 trillion, with estimates of its predicted value over the next five to ten years varying from $4 trillion to $11 trillion. Such variability demonstrates the difficulty of making economic forecasts in the face of various uncertainties, including a lack of consensus among researchers about exactly what the IoT is and how it will develop.

50. What is the difference between IIOT and IOT?
The acronym IIOT stands for “Industrial Internet of Things”. This is very different when compared to the Internet of things application. When it comes to Industrial Internet of Things, they use heavy or critical machines something like the hardware used in aerospace and in defense where these devices are connected over a network and any failure of these devices will cause a life-threatening situation. Well, when it comes to the internet of things it is just done at a small scale level where there is no need to worry about life-threatening situations because it is more catered towards the process execution and enhancement.

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