1. What is skimming explain?
Answer: It collects the highest version of every rule in the ruleset and copies them into a new major version of that ruleset on the same system.
2. Explain About Page-set-messages Method?
Answer: Use the Page-Set-Messages method to add a message to a clipboard page. Like a message associated with a property, a message associated with a page normally prevents the page from being saved into the database.
3. Default data table where the instance of the class is the store (how it will search ) pc_work?
Answer: Workbasket assignments are stored in a single pr_assign_workbasket table.
Worklist assignments are stored in a single pr_assign_worklist table.
The Work- base class is mapped to the pc_work table, a table with columns that represent all the work object properties that need to be exposed to flow processing to function correctly. Map your work object classes to either the pc_work stable or another table that has the same columns.
The Database class is mapped to the pr_data table. Map your data classes to either the pr_data table or another table that has the same columns.
all Rule related data will be stored in pr4_pegarules. The pr_other table is the last resort or default destination for saved instances that belong to a class that is not mapped to any other tables.
4. How to send multiple correspondences at a time?
Answer: Preflight: Starts the Application Preflight tool, which reports warning conditions on the rules in your Application RuleSets. These may indicate guardrail compliance issues, potential performance issues, accessibility status, or other notable conditions.
– Application Preflight tool to list each rule in an application that contains a warning message. Warning messages suggest that the rule is at variance with guardrails and other best practices. You can also check for browser compatibility of visual elements.
you can extend the set of warnings with a custom activity named Rule-ZZZZ.CheckForCustomWarnings, where Rule-ZZZZ is a rule type.
Warnings are maintained as instances of the Index-Warning class and saved in the pr_index_warnings database table.
The standard decision tree rule Embed-Warning.pxWarningDetails controls whether warnings of a specific type are reported in the Application Preflight tool. By default, all are reported; you can override this decision tree rule to choose which to omit. This decision tree tests the property pxWarningType, which can have values indicating the source of the warning, such as:
=> Java — an activity contains a Java step
=> API 02 — an activity uses the Version 3 PublicAPI
=> WriteNow — An activity step includes a method with an immediate database writes operation rather than a Commit method.
5. What is Covers folder and object and differences among them?
Answer: a Cover is a work object that is a parent to one or more related work objects.
One work party is present in the cover work object and also present in the covered work objects associated with the covers.
A folder is a work object in concrete class that inherits from the work-Folder-class.
A folder object holds a collection of one or more other work objects providing access for reporting.
6. Declare pages?
Answer: it is the instance of Rule-Declare-Pages rule type. it is used to define the content of clipboard page that is available in reading the only mode for multiple requestors in ur application. the name of the declared page starts with Declare
7. what is rule resolution?
Answer: It is a mechanism to decide which rule need to be executed at run time.
Work process of rule resolution?
match the class hierarchy.
filter by ruleset list and availability.
filter based on time
Qualify on circumstance
enforces access roles and privileges
executing the survivor rule.
8. What Is The Difference Between Listview And Summaryview?
Answer: A summary view rule defines a two-level report display, presenting summary counts, totals or averages to be displayed initially, and allowing users to click a row to drill down to supporting detail for that row.
Summary view rules support interactive charts, trend reports, and the use of AJAX for pop-up Smart-Info windows.
A summary view rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-SummaryView rule type. This rule type is part of the Reports category.
A list view rule, an instance of the Rule-Obj-ListView rule type, defines a report. Users can personalize list view reports easily and interact with them.
Use the Report wizard to define list view reports and link them to our portal.
9. Explain In Brief The Configuration Of A ListView?
Answer: List view (an instance of Rule-Obj-ListView ) is used to define a custom report or personal version of a report.
A list view can be configured as follows:
Applies to a class of list view will be taken as the database table map for the search criteria.
Display fields tab is used to depict the fields that are displayed along with category and to enable/disable
The content tab is used to depict the criteria, fields to be retrieved, the key of each row (if selected) and Report
source (Page name where the values should be saved and the activity to be called)
In organizing tab we specify to enable/disable paging, page size, mode, alignment, etc.
We can also configure additional buttons and their fragments here.
Format tab is used to depict the formatting of the list (like even/odd coloring) and details on single click etc.
The list view can be accessed from an activity or Html as follows:
A list view can be used for complex retrievals from the database by not specifying the display, format and Organize table.
10. What are the primary configurations that you do in an Access Group?
Answer: The primary purpose of an access group is to make a set of RuleSet versions available to requestors.
Also, the access group associated with a user affects access control by determining:
The portal layout that a user sees first after logging in.
The local customization RuleSet name and RuleSet version. These usually are defaulted when this user creates a new rule instance.
The application rule for this user.
Optionally, the access roles available to this user.
Workpools are available to the user.
11. What are Work Parties? How do you send correspondence to work for parties?
Answer: Work party is a person, organization, or other actor identified in a work object, who can be the recipient of the email or other forms of correspondence. A work object may identify no work parties, one, or many work parties. The work party role associated with each work party identifies why a party is present and may determine which properties are defined for that party.
A Notify activity, when referenced in a flow, sends out correspondence, such as an email message, when a flow execution creates an assignment. Typically, the system addresses correspondence to a work party identified in the work object and reports progress to that party.
12. What are screen flows and screen tabbed flows?
Answer: Many computer input procedures are most effectively handled by presenting a user with a series of simple forms that each require only one or a few questions to be answered. After submitting a form, a user receives another simple form (with more questions) that may depend on previous answers. At any point, users can backtrack to review, or change, previous answers.
Process Commander can support such interactions with screen flows, a flow rule with specific settings.
Three runtime presentations are available to allow users to navigate within a screen flow execution at runtime:
Completed tasks (that are designated as entry points) appear as blue rectangles in a breadcrumbs control. A user selects a rectangle to return to that task.
Tabs for both completed and future tasks (that are marked as entry points) appear at the top of the action area. Completed tasks contain a checkmark.
No breadcrumbs control or tabs appear. A user can return to a completed task that is marked as an entry point when the button appears.
13. What is the difference between Page-Validate and Property-Validate methods?
Answer: Page-Validate method is used to validate all the properties present on a page. If a page has embedded pages, this method works recursively to validate all the properties. This method consumes a lot of system resources and takes more time. If you want to validate specific properties use Obj-Validate method with Rule-Obj-Validate rule.
The property-validate method is used to impose restrictions on property value. Use Edit validate rule along with Property-Validate method to impose restrictions. You can validate multiple properties using Property-Validate method.
14. Performance of our work in the Pega is measured using?
Answer: DBTrace: DBTrace is a feature in the Performance Analysis Tool (PAL) that creates a detailed log of calls to the PegaRULES database. DTrace displays SQL statements sent to the database and the time spent for each operation.
PAL: This data is stored in “PAL counters” or “PAL readings.” PAL stands for Performance Analyzer and is a collection of counters and timer readings, stored in the requestor, that an application developer could use to analyze performance issues in a system.
- Add Reading
- Add Reading with Clipboard Size
- Reset Data
- Save Data
- Start DBTrace
- DTrace Options
- Start Profiler
- Show Graph
- My Alerts
Alerts: During application processing, Process Commander writes to the performance alert log a sequence of text entries called alert messages that identify mainly performance-related issues or errors. The performance alert log is usually named PegaRULES-ALERT-YYYY-MMM-DD log.
AES: Exceptions are processed in a similar way as alerts. When a Process Commander server generates exceptions they are sent by SOAP to the AES system. The system parses the exceptions and stores the records in the pegaam_exception table in the AES database. Based upon how often an exception occurs and the system events that triggered those exceptions, AES aggregates these records into work objects called AES exception items. These items are written to the AES database in the pegaam_exception_work table
15. what is parallel processing in Pega?
Answer: running a parallel sub-flow to the main flow or calling service through integration shapes and at the same time processing a job…..
16. What is the Difference between screen flow and process flow?
Answer: screen flow is for UI improvement..while process flow is for business logic execution..so both have diff purpose.
In screen flow we can’t create a WO, in process flow we can create a WO. in Screen flow we have next, previous options are available in process flow not available.
17. What is the difference between harness & section?
Answer: Harness: Use Harness rule to define appearance and processing of wok object forms used in our app to create WO and process Assignments.
Harness rule defines the complete forms that support all user interactions that create, update and resolve the WO.
Section: A section rule defines the appearance and contents of the form.
18. How To Expose Aggregate Property?
Declare Index rule is a better approach.
1. Create a concrete class derived from the Index- base class.
2. Create Single Value properties in the new class to hold values of the embedded values.
3. Create a Declare Index rule with the appropriate embedded Page Context value that copies the embedded values into a new Index- instance.
4. Save the Declare Index rule. It executes immediately, adding and deleting instances of the new class.
5. Expose database columns corresponding to the Index- class.
6. Reference the Index- properties in the list view rule.
19. Explain In Brief About The Configuration Of A Summary View?
Answer: Summary views are used to create reports which are grouped by certain criteria and can be later drilled down.
A summary view can be configured as follows:
Applies to a class of summary view will be taken as the database table map for the search criteria
The category is used to know under which tab the report should come.
Criteria are used in the where class (this can be asked to the user by enabling prompt user)
Group by and field functions (like count) are used for initial display. If we have more than one group by
it is Displayed one after another on clicking +
Drill down fields are used to display the fields when we click on the assignment.
The format is used to tell how to format the display and charts can also be used.
The summary view can be accessed from an activity or Html as follows:
Call Rule-Obj-List View. ShowView activity with the class name and summary view name as parameters
20. What are workbaskets? What is the relationship between a Work Group and Workbasket?
Answer: Assignments for work objects may be associated either with individual users
(and appear on their worklists) or with a workbasket. All users who are
qualified to work on work objects from that work basket may remove an
assignment from the workbasket to process the assignment. The “contents” of a workbasket is a set of assignments awaiting processing, ordered in decreasing urgency, similar to the contents of a worklist.
Few other important things to keep in mind about workbaskets are (If only the specific question is asked then answer as below):
Assignments leave a workbasket in three ways:
Users who are qualified can remove an assignment from the workbasket to process the assignment.
An application can automatically route assignments in a workbasket to users based on work schedules, due dates, skills, workloads, and other factors.
Managers can transfer assignments from a workbasket to user worklists.
During the execution of a flow, a router task can choose which workbasket is most appropriate to receive a newly created assignment.
The relationship between workgroups and workbaskets is one-to-many i.e. one workgroup can be associated with multiple workbaskets. (In the workbasket tab of workbasket data instances we enter the name of a workgroup that uses the workbasket. This field determines which workbaskets appear in the View Queue list on the My Group area of the Process Work workspace for managers).
21. What do you mean by exposing a property? Did you use any SQL tools or does Pega provide some means to expose columns?
Answer: A Single Value property that is visible as a column in a database table is said to be exposed. Only exposed properties can be used for the record selection operations in the list view and summary view rules.
In PEGA we can use the ‘Modify Database Schema’ wizard to expose properties. Also, the database administrator can cause a property previously-stored only inside the Storage Stream column to become a separate exposed column using SQL tools such as TOAD.
Aggregate properties, properties within an embedded page, and properties that are not exposed are contained in a specially formatted Storage Stream or BLOB column. Most Pega Rules database tables contain a Storage Stream column named pzPVStream.
Exposing too many properties in a table may speed reporting and searching operations, but make the insert and update operations slower. The tradeoff and relative impact depend on hardware and software and no general guidelines exist.
22. How to expose a single value property?
Answer: Process Commander stores the values of all aggregate properties and some Single Value properties in a BLOB column (the Storage Stream) usually in a compressed form. Such properties cannot support selection in the list view and summary view reports and can slow retrieval and processing in other operations
1. Select Tools > Database > Modify Database Schema.
2. A list of databases identified in Database data instances appears. Select a database and click Next.
3. A list of tables in the selected database appears from Database Table instances. Select a table.
4. Click Explore Columns.
5. The resulting List of Classes window displays the number of rows in the table, the number of columns in the table and a list of the classes assigned to that table. The Properties Set to Be Visible value counts the properties for which the Column Inclusion value is Required or Recommended. This Column Inclusion value is advisory and does not indicate whether the property is exposed — corresponds to a column. The Count column shows the total count of properties in this class plus those its parent classes.
6. To see the columns currently defined in this table, click the numeric link labeled Number of columns in this table.
7. The List of Database Columns window shows the column name, column data type, and column width in bytes for each column in the table.
23. What Are The Methods We Have Used For Validations?
a. Obj-Validate–we can refer this method in Activities and inflow actions at Validate Rule field.
b. Edit-Validate—- we can refer this in property form at the edit-validate field and in activities through the property-validate method.
Note: I think Obj-Validate is used for Server Side Validation and Edit-Validate is used for Client-Side Validation.
24. Explain About Page-copy Method?
Answer: The page-copy method is used to copy the contents of a source clipboard page to a new or previously created destination clipboard page. The source page is not altered.
After this method completes, the destination page contains properties copied from the source page and can contain additional properties from a model.
25. Explain About Property-set-message?
Answer: The property-set-message method is used to associate a text message with a property or a step page. The system reads the appropriate property and adds the message to the page. We can provide the entire literal text of the message, or reference a message rule key that in turn contains message text. (Rule-Message rule type).
26. What is SLA’s, how are they different from Agents?
Answer: A service level rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-ServiceLevel type. The service
level can define a goal and a deadline times for processing an assignment and can
execute activities if the goal or the deadline is not met. This assignment-level service
level is distinct from any service level associated with the entire flow.
At runtime, an internal countdown clock (measuring the completion of the assignment
against the goal and deadline times computed from the service level rule) starts when the
the assignment task is created.
An agent is a background internal requestor operating on the server. These requestors can
periodically monitor conditions and perform processing as necessary.
Most agents are defined by an Agent Queue rule (Rule-Agent-Queue), which includes a
list of the activities they perform.
27. If I have 3 different work objects in my application, how to store them in three different tables?
Answer: Open/Create the Data-Admin-DB-Table instance for each class and mention the table name. By doing this the individual work objects will be stored in the new table you mentioned in the Data-Admin-DB-Table instance. This is a best practice if there too many object instances for each class
28. Difference between obj-open and obj-open-by-handled?
Answer: Obj-Open: we will get multiple records from a table based on the criteria from the specified class. Or Opens an instance of a given class
OBJ-open-handle: here we have had to pass the pzInskey as an instance handle, this method will open only one record at the time. Or Open object by the handle to the Pinsky value
The handle of an instance is a unique key, in an internal format, assembled by the system that identifies an instance in the PegaRULES database. It may differ from the visible key generally used to identify instances. (Every instance has a unique handle, but more than one instance may share the same visible key.) For rule instances, the handle includes system-generated identifying values (including the create date and time) that make it unique.
Use the Obj-Open-By-Handle method only if you can determine the unique handle that permanently identifies which instance to open. Otherwise, use the Obj-Open method.
29. What is SLA? where we use SLA?
Answer: A service level rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-Service Level rule type. Each service level rule defines one or two time intervals, known as goals and deadlines that indicate the expected or targeted time for the assignment, or time-to-resolve for the work object.
If an assignment isn’t completed before the time limit, the system can automatically raise the assignment and cancel the entire flow, and so on
30. What is a screen flow, why it is used?
Answer: A series of forms that each require only one or few questions to be answered. After submitting a form, the user receives another simple form with more fields that may depend on previous answers. At any point, the user can go to previous forms to review or change previous answers.
To make a screen flow, create a new flow rule and select screen flow in the Template field.
31. When do we say that a work object is resolved? Can a work object be resolved manually?
Answer: When the flow reached the end shape, the work object gets resolved.
Manually it can be resolved through UpdateStatus activity and provide the values for “StatusWork” parameter as Resolved.
32. How to store the instance of the class in a specific database?
Answer: Creating the separate DB table for that working-class within the DB, or map to external DB and further saves will go to that DB
33. Difference between obj-list, rdb-list?
Answer: Obj-list: Retrieve to a page, read-only, a selected set of properties Important fields Obj-List:
RequestType: The Type of the browse; allows different processing or sets of properties to be defined. Defaults to Standard. Key-part to the Rule-RDB-SQL instance.
Access: An indication of the database package used to access this table, from the INI file (currently ODBC). Key-part to the Rule-RDB-SQL instance.
ClassName: The object class on which the browse is performed.
Rdb-list: To Retrieve external Relational Database List.
Import tant fields in RDB-List:
PageName: Page Name indicating where the results will be put
ObjClass: The object Class to List. When used with RuleObjList parameter, this is the class of the list to use.
34. How a user’s ruleset list is formed ( the logic )?
Answer: The system adds entries it finds from following sources in the order listed. The system adds entries it finds from these sources in the top of the list,
Requestor: (Data-Admin-Requestor class) — Usually this adds the RuleSets named Pega-RULES, and Pega-IntSvcs and a version or version prefix for these
Division — As referenced in the Operator-ID instance
Organization — As referenced in the Operator-ID instance
Access Group: As referenced in the Operator-ID instance
Ruleset Versions — Prerequisite RuleSets and Versions to those already compiled
Operator ID: If this user has the ability to check out rules, the personal RuleSet (named the same as the Operator ID key) is added last. Also called as a private ruleset.
35. Decision/fork usage… Scenarios Decision?
Answer: Decision: Use the Decision task ( ) to reference a map value rule, decision table rule, decision tree rule or a Boolean expression that when evaluated produces a value that is the basis of branching in the flow.
At runtime, the system evaluates the decision rule based on inputs from the flow and the work object and chooses one of the outgoing connectors based on the result. No user interaction or input is required.
Fork: Use the fork shape ( ) to represent a point where the flow execution chooses one of a few different paths (connectors) based on tests on the work object. At runtime, the system evaluates the conditions on each outgoing connector, starting with the connector assigned the highest likelihood.
36. What is Access Group?
Answer: Access Group controls the security basing on the job functions. It is an instance of Data-Admin-Operator-AccessGroup. Various aspects that can be controlled through access group are the default and available types of works( also called as work pools), Primary rulesets ( Access Control to rulesets), Assigned roles, Portal layout
37. when will we go for may start and authenticate?
Answer: If calling activity from any other activity may start checkbox is optional.if the activity getting called for the form submission then may start in need to be checked.
Authentication is the process of determining the identity of a user or requestor. proper authentication is required for the activity to get started for the corresponding operator. Activity will not be triggered when the authentication is checked.
38. What is SLA’s & what are the types of SLA’s? where we can put these?
Answer: It is the instance of Rule-Obj-Service Level Rule type. It can be added to the Assignment and work object.
Service level contains 2-time intervals Goal and Deadline. it indicates the expected time for the assignment and time to resolve the WO.
39. What is a Work Group? What is the primary function of a Work Group from a business perspective?
Answer: A workgroup is a logical collection of operators having a common supervisor i,e. a workgroup can identify a user who is a supervisor and a set of workers and workbaskets that report to that supervisor. (Company)
Use – For the supervisor of a workgroup, the My Group area of the Process Workspace provides quick access to the work lists and workbaskets associated with the group (In the workbasket tab of workbasket data instances we enter the name of a workgroup that uses the workbasket. This field determines which workbaskets appear in the View Queue list on the My Group area of the Process Work workspace for managers). Also, workgroups facilitate for better monitoring and reporting of tasks on the Monitor Activity workspace.
40. What Is Exposing A Property?
Answer: Exposing a property means to make a property as a separate independent column so that it can be used in sql queries and as a criterion in reporting.
41. What is an Agent?
Answer: An agent is an internal background process operating on the server that runs activities on a periodic basis.
Agents route work according to the rules in our application.
Agents also perform system tasks such as sending e-mail notifications about assignments and outgoing correspondence, generating updated indexes for the full-text search feature, synchronizing caches across nodes in a multiple node system, and so on
42. How do we do Escalation?
Answer: Escalation refers to any processing within a Process Commander application that causes high-priority work objects to become visible to users and managers and to be processed sooner rather than later.
The numeric property known as urgency determines the order that assignments for that work object appear on worklists. Escalation recalculates the urgency value to reflect its age, impending due date, or explicit management inputs.
Escalation can occur through a service level rule associated with the flow and through background processing by the Pega-ProCom agent.
43. Explain About Post Activity?
Answer: Activity to run after other successful processing of this flow action.
For screen flow rules By default, when this flow action appears as a step in a screen flow rule, and the user at runtime clicks away to a different step in the screen flow rule, this activity rule does not run. To cause this activity to execute when the user clicks away to a different step, select the Post Action on Click Away? the checkbox on the Assignment shape properties panel.
44. What are SLAs used for? How do you configure an SLA?
Answer: SLAs are rules in PRPC that indicate the expected or targeted turnaround time for the assignment, or time-to-resolve for the work object. Each service level rule defines one to three-time intervals, known as goals, deadlines, and late intervals. Late intervals are repeated.
Service level rules can be associated with assignments in a flow and with the entire flow. For example, we can set a goal of 2 hours to process an assignment and a deadline of 4 hours. (The time interval starts when the assignment is created, not when a user begins processing the assignment.)
For assignments, the service level rule is referenced in the Assignment Properties panel of the assigned task.
For the overall work object, the service level rule is identified in the standard property .pySLAName, typically set up through a model for the class. (The default value is the default service level.)
The Pega-ProCom agent detects service levels not achieved — unmet goals or deadlines — promptly. If an assignment is not completed before the time limit, the system can automatically notify one or more parties, escalate the assignment, cancel the entire flow, and so on.
45. What are Access Group and Access roles and difference between them?
Answer: Access groups make a set of RuleSet versions available to requestors. Use an access role name to convey permissions (capabilities) to a user or a group of users. Access roles can be referenced in requestor instances, Operator ID instances, in access group instances, in activities, and in queries.
46. How do you associate an operator with a workbasket?
Answer: Each operator may have a list of workbaskets that they can view. Normally users can fetch assignments directly from any workbasket defined for their own organizational unit. However, if the roles are specified in the roles array on the workbasket tab of the workbasket data instance, the operator must possess at least one access role that matches an access role in the Roles array.
47. What is the difference between a Work pool and a Work Type? Can a working pool belong to another work pool? Can a work type belong to a working pool?
Answer: Different work types (classes derived from the Work- base class) are grouped into one class group and when this class group is added to a user in his access group, the user can work on each work type of each class group added. Class groups so added are called as Work pools. A working pool cannot belong to another work pool. Multiple work types can belong to a working pool
Class Group – A class group instance causes the system to store the instances corresponding to two or more concrete classes that share a common key format in a single database table. The name of the class group is a prefix of the names of the member classes. Class groups and work pools are basically the same things and class groups added to an access group are called work pools.
48. What are the declarative rules? Few examples?
Answer: A declarative rule describes a computational relationship among
property values that are expected to be valid “always” or “often” or “as
needed”. Declarative rules will be in force automatically and hence you need not call these rules explicitly. The primary benefit of declarative processing is that the system controls when computations are processed. Some examples are :
Constraints rules (Rule-Declare-Constraints rule type)
Declare Expression rules (Rule-Declare-Expressions rule type)
Declare Index rules (Rule-Declare-Index rule type)
Declare OnChange rules (Rule-Declare-OnChange rule type)
Declare Trigger rules (Rule-Declare-Trigger rule types)
Keep in mind the concept of forwarding chaining and backward chaining and out of the above rules only Declare Expressions can use both FW Chaining as well as BW chaining. Rest all use only forward chaining.
49. Migration of patches from one environment to another?
Answer: For Migration of rules from one environment to another we create a ZIP file containing rules from one or more RuleSets. For this, we use a product rule (Rule-Admin-Product rule type) or a product patch rule (Rule-Admin-Product-Patch rule type) and then import the zip file into the target environment. Also, we can use the export gadget to create a zip file for rulesets.
The data instances (such as access groups, operator ids, etc.) can be included in the product or patch rules.
50. What are Agents and how to configure them?
Answer: An agent is an internal background process operating on the server that runs activities on a periodic basis. Agents route work according to the rules in your application; they also perform system tasks such as sending email notifications about assignments and outgoing correspondence, generating updated indexes for the full-text search feature, synchronizing caches across nodes in multiple node systems, and so on.
Agents are defined by Agents rules (Rule-Agent-Queue rule type). Agents are enabled and are scheduled through Agent Queue data instances (Data-Agent-Queue class). The pattern (periodic/recurring) and interval (amount of time, in seconds, that the agent waits before restarting) for the Agent rule is configured in the Agent Queue data instances.
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