DevOps Chef Interview Questions & Answers

1. what’s Version control?
Answer: This can be most likely the simplest question you may face within the interview. My suggestion is to initially define Version management. Version management systems encompass a central shared repository wherever teammates will commit changes to a file or set of files. Then you’ll mention the uses of version management. (Devops Coding Interview Questions)
Version management permits you to:
Revert files back to a previous state.
Compare changes over time.
See UN agency last changed one thing that may be inflicting a retardant.
Who introduced a difficulty and once.

2. what’s State Stalking in Nagios?
Answer: can advise you to initially provide a tiny introduction on State Stalking. it’s used for work functions. once Stalking is enabled for a specific host or service, Nagios can watch that host or service terribly fastidiously and log any changes it sees within the output of check results.
Depending on the discussion between you and asked you’ll conjointly add, “It is often terribly useful in later analysis of the log files. underneath traditional circumstances, the results of a bunch of service checks are simply logged if the host or service has modified state since it had been last checked.”

3. however does one realize an inventory of files that have modified in a very specific commit?
For this answer rather than simply telling the command, make a case for what specifically this command can do this you’ll say that, to induce an inventory file that has modified in a very specific commit use command.
git diff-tree -r
Given the commit hash, this can list all the files that were modified or more therein commit. The -r flag makes the command list individual files, instead of collapsing them into root directory names solely.
You can conjointly embody the below mention purpose though it’s entirely optional however can facilitate in impressing the asker.
The output also will embody some additional data, which may be simply suppressed by as well as 2 flags:
Here –no-commit-id can suppress the commit hashes from showing within the output, and –name-only can solely print the file names, rather than their ways. (Online Training Institute)

4. however can you recognize in crumb if a branch has already been incorporating into the master?
I will counsel you to embody each of the below mentioned commands:
git branch –merged lists the branches that are incorporated into this branch.
git branch –no-merged lists the branches that haven’t been incorporate.

5. make a case for what’s Memcached?
Answer: Memcached may be a free and ASCII text file, superior, distributed memory object caching system. the first objective of Memcached is to boost the latent period for knowledge which will preferably be recovered or made from another supply or information. it’s accustomed to avoid the requirement to work SQL information or another supply repetitively to fetch knowledge for the synchronal request.
Memcached is often used for
Social Networking -> Profile Caching
Content Aggregation -> HTML/ Page Caching
Ad targeting -> Cookie/profile trailing
Relationship -> Session caching
E-commerce -> Session and hypertext mark-up language caching
Location-based services -> information question scaling
Gaming and recreation -> Session caching
Memcache helps in
Speed up application processes
It determines what to store and what to not cut back the number of retrieval requests to the information
The drawback of Memcached is
It is not a persistent knowledge store
Not an information
It is not associate degree application-specific
It cannot cache giant object

6. What area unit the success factors for Continuous Integration?
Answer: Here you have got to say the necessities for Continuous Integration.
You could embody the subsequent points in your answer:
Maintain a code repository
Automate the build
Make the build self-testing
Everyone commits to the baseline daily
Every commit (to baseline) ought to be engineered
Keep the build quick
Test in a very similar to the assembly setting
Make it simple to induce the newest deliverables
Everyone will see the results of the newest build
Automate readying.

7. what’s antioxidant IDE?
Answer: My suggestion is to start out this answer by process the antioxidant IDE. it’s an associate degree integrated development setting for antioxidant scripts. it’s enforced as a Firefox extension and permits you to record edit and right tests. antioxidant IDE includes the complete antioxidant Core, permitting you to simply and quickly record and replay tests within the actual setting that they’ll run in.
Now embody some benefits in your answer. With autocomplete support and also the ability to maneuver commands around quickly, antioxidant IDE is that the ideal setting for making antioxidant tests regardless of what type of tests you like.

8. what’s Puppet?
Answer: I will be able to advise you to initially provides a tiny definition of Puppet. it’s a Configuration Management tool that is employed to automatize administration tasks. (Online coaching Institute)

Now you ought to describe its design and the way Puppet manages its Agents. Puppet contains a Master-Slave design within which the Slave needs to initially send a Certificate language request to Master and Master needs to sign that Certificate to ascertain a secure association between Puppet Master and Puppet Slave as shown within the diagram below. Puppet Slave sends missive of invitation to Puppet Master and Puppet Master then pushes configuration on Slave.

9. what’s the Puppet Manifests?
Answer: t could be a vital question and simply certify you come in an accurate flow consistent with the American state you ought to initial outline Manifests.
Every node (or Puppet Agent) has its configuration details in Puppet Master, written within the native Puppet language. These details are written within the language that Puppet will perceive and are termed as Manifests. Manifests are composed of Puppet code and their filenames use the .pp extension.
Now offer an associate degree example, you’ll write a manifest in Puppet Master that makes a file and installs apache on all Puppet Agents (Slaves) connected to the Puppet Master.

10. Tell the American state a couple of times once you used collaboration and Puppet to assist resolve a conflict at intervals a team?
Answer: show them concerning your past expertise of Puppet and the way it had been helpful to resolve conflicts, you’ll talk to the below-mentioned example:
The development team wished for root access on check machines managed by Puppet to form specific configuration changes. we tend to respond by meeting with them weekly to agree on a method for developers to speak about configuration changes and to empower them to form several of the changes they required. Through our joint efforts, we tend to come up with the simplest way for the developers to vary specific configuration values themselves via knowledge abstracted through Hiera. In fact, we tend to even school one amongst the developers the way to write Puppet code unitedly with the United States.

11. what’s the utilization of etckeeper-commit-post and etckeeper-commit-pre on PUPPET AGENT?
Answer: keeper-commit-post: during this configuration file you’ll outline commands and scripts that execute once pushing configuration on Agent.
Etckeeper-commit-pre: during this configuration file you’ll outline command and scripts that executes before pushing configuration on Agent

12. what’s Factor?
Answer: generally you would like to jot down manifests on conditional expression supported agent-specific knowledge that is out there through the issue. the issue provides data like Kernel version, Dist unleashes, IP Address, central processor information, etc. you’ll outline your issue conjointly.

13. what’s MCollective?
Answer: MCollective could be a powerful orchestration framework. Run actions on thousands of servers at the same time, victimization existing plugins, or Coding your own.

14. what’s the utilization of etckeeper-commit-post and etckeeper-commit-pre-on Puppet Agent?
Answer: Etckeeper-commit-post: during this configuration file, you’ll outline command and scripts that execute once pushing configuration on Agent Etckeeper-commit-pre: during this configuration file you’ll outline command and scripts that execute before pushing configuration on Agent.

15. justify variations at school definition vs declaration?
Answer: shaping a category makes it out there for later use. It doesn’t nonetheless add any resources to the catalog; to try and do that, you need to declare it or assign it from associate degree ENC.

16. What are microservices and why they need an impression on operations?
Answer: Microservices could be a product of computer code design and programming practices. Microservices architectures generally turn out smaller, however additional varied artifacts that Operations is to blame for often deploying and managing. For this reason, microservices have a crucial impact on Operations. The term that describes the responsibilities of deploying small services is micro deployments. So, what DevOps is de facto concerning is bridging the gap between small services and micro deployments.

17. what are the explanations against victimization associate degree RDBMS?
Answer: during a shell, if your application is all concerning storing application entities during a persistent and consistent means, then associate degree RDBMS can be associate degree overkill. a straightforward Key-Value storage answer may well be excellent for you. Note that the worth isn’t meant to be a straightforward component however is a posh entity in itself!
Another reason can be if you have got graded application objects and wish some question capability into them then most NoSQL solutions may well be a work. With associate degree RDBMS you’ll use ORM to attain a similar result however at the price of adding further quality.
RDBMS is additionally not the simplest answer if you’re attempting to store giant trees or networks of objects. reckoning on your different wants Graph information may suit you.
If {you ar|you’re} running within the Cloud and wish to run a distributed information for sturdiness and availableness then you’ll check generator and massive Table primarily based datastores that are designed for this core purpose.
Last however not least, if your knowledge grows large to be processed on one machine, you may verify Hadoop or the other answer that supports distributed Map/Reduce.

18. however, is dock-walloper completely different from different instrumentality technologies?
Answer: consistent with the American state, the below points ought to be there in your answer:
Docker containers are simple to deploy during a cloud. It will get additional applications running on similar hardware than different technologies, it makes it simple for developers to quickly produce, ready-to-run pack applications and it makes managing and deploying applications abundant easier. you’ll even share containers along with your applications.
If you have got some additional points to feature you’ll do this however certify the higher than rationalization is there in your answer.

19. What square measures the adoption of DevOps within the industry?
Answer: Use of agile and different development processes and strategies.
Demand for Associate in the Nursing enlarged rate of production releases from application and business.
The wide handiness of virtual and cloud infrastructure from each internal and external providers;
Increased usage of information center, automation and configuration management tools;
Increased target take a look at automation and continuous integration methods;
Best practices on essential problems.

20. Tell North American country however you’ve got used dockhand in your past position?
Answer: make a case for however you’ve got used dockhand to assist speedy preparation. make a case for however you’ve got written dockhand and used dockhand with different tools like Puppet, Chef, or Jenkins. If you’ve got no past sensible expertise in dockhand and have past expertise with different tools in a very similar house, be honest and make a case for a similar. In this case, it is smart if you’ll compare different tools to dockhand in terms of practicality.

21. What varieties of testing square measure needed?
Answer: software system groups can typically search for the “fair weather” path to system completion; that’s, they begin from the Associate in Nursing assumption that software systems can typically work and solely sometimes fail. I think to apply defensive programming in a very pragmatic manner, which frequently suggests that assumptive that the code can fail and design for those failures. I attempt to incorporate unit take a look at strategy, use of taking a look at harnesses, early load testing; network simulation, A/B, and variable testing, etc.

22. Describe two-factor authentication?
Answer: Two-factor authentication could be a security method within which the user provides 2 suggests that of identification from separate classes of credentials; one is usually a physical token, like a card, and also the different is usually one thing memorized, like a security code.

23. What square measure the benefits of NoSQL info over RDBMS?
Answer: the benefits are:

1. Less would like for ETL
2. Support for unstructured text
3. Ability to handle amendment over time
4. Breadth of practicality
5. Ability to scale horizontally
6. Support for multiple information structures
7. alternative of vendors

24. however, would you guarantee traceability?
Answer: This question probes your angle to metrics, logging, group action journeys, and coverage. you ought to be able to determine that metric, observation and work got to be a core part of the software, which while not them, the software system is actually not attending to be able to seem maintained and diagnosed. embrace words like Syslog, Splunk, error chase, Nagios, SCOM, Avicode in your answer.

25. what’s the importance of a Signed Header?
Answer: The Signed Header is required for the validation of the interaction between the cook node, server, and signed header authentication.

26. need to master these DevOps tools?
Answer: completely describe any tools that you simply square measure assured concerning, what its skills square measure and why you like exploiting it. as an example, if you’ve got experience in disagreeable person, you’d tell the enquirer that disagreeable person could be a distributed Version system (VCS) tool that enables the user to trace file changes and revert to specific changes once needed. Discuss however a disagreeable person’s distributed design offers it another edge wherever developers build changes regionally and may have the whole project history on their native Git repositories, which may be later shared with different team members.

27. Is there a distinction between Agile and DevOps? If affirmative, please explain?
Answer: As a DevOps engineer, interview queries like this square measure quite expected. begin by describing the plain overlap between DevOps and Agile. though the implementation of DevOps is often in synchronizing with Agile methodologies, there’s a transparent distinction between the 2. The principles of Agile square measure related to seamless production or development of a bit of software system. On the opposite hand, DevOps deals with the event, followed by preparation of the software system, making a certain quicker turnaround, minimum errors, and responsibility.

28. however, is cook used as a CM tool?
Answer: the cook is taken into account to be one of all the well-liked industry-wide CM tools. Facebook migrated its infrastructure and backend IT to the cooking platform, as an example. make a case for, however, cook helps you to avoid delays by automating processes. The scripts square measure written in Ruby. It will integrate with cloud-based platforms and piece new systems. It provides several libraries for infrastructure development which will later be deployed inside the software system. due to its centralized management system, one cook server is enough to be used because of the center for deploying varied policies.

29. however, is IaC enforced exploitation AWS?
Answer: begin by talking regarding the old mechanisms of Coding commands onto script files and testing them in an exceedingly separate atmosphere before readying and the way this approach is being replaced by Ian. almost like the codes written for alternative services, with the assistance of AWS, IaC permits developers to jot down, test, and maintain infrastructure entities in an exceedingly descriptive manner, exploitation formats like JSON or YAML. this permits easier development and quicker readying of infrastructure changes.
As a DevOps engineer, Associate in Nursing in-depth data of processes, tools, and relevant technology are essential. you need to even have a holistic understanding of the product, services, and systems in situ. If your answers matched the answers we’ve provided on top of, you’re in nice form for future DevOps interviews. sensible luck! If you’re searching for answers to specific DevOps interview queries that aren’t addressed here, raise them within the comments below. Our DevOps consultants can assist you to craft the right answer.

30. What are the core operations of DevOps in terms of development and Infrastructure?
The core operations of DevOps:

Application development
Code developing
Code coverage
Unit testing
Deployment With infrastructure

31. What are the key parts of Continuous Testing tools?
Answer: Key parts of Continuous Testing are:
Risk Assessment: It Covers risk mitigation tasks, technical debt, quality assessment, and take a look at coverage improvement to make sure the build is prepared to progress toward the succeeding stage.
Policy Analysis: It ensures all processes align with the organization’s evolving business and compliance demands are met.
Requirements Traceability: It ensures true needs are met and make-over isn’t needed. Associate in Nursing object assessment is employed to spot that needs are in danger, operating obviously, or need more validation.
Advanced Analysis: It uses automation in areas like static code analysis, changes impact analysis, and scope assessment/prioritization to forestall defects within the 1st place and accomplishing additional inside every iteration.
Test Optimization: It ensures tests yield correct outcomes and supply unjust findings. Aspects embody take a look at knowledge management, take a look at improvement Management, and take a look at Maintenance
Service image allows access to the virtual variety of the specified testing stages, cutting the waste time to check atmosphere setup and handiness.

32. Mention what’s the distinction between Memcache and Memcached?
Answer: Memcache: its Associate in Nursing extension that enables you to figure through handy object-oriented (OOP’s) and procedural interfaces. it’s designed to scale back info load in dynamic internet applications.
Memcached: its Associate in Nursing extension that uses the libmemcached library to produce API for communication with Memcached servers. it’s accustomed increase the dynamic internet applications by assuaging info load. it’s the newest API.

33. what’s AWS CodePipeline in AWS Devops?
Answer: AWS Code Pipeline may be a Continuous integration and continuous delivery service for quick and reliable application and infrastructure updates. Code Pipeline builds, tests, and deploys your code anytime there’s a code amendment, supported by the discharge method models you outline. this permits you to chop-chop and faithfully deliver options and updates.

34. What are the AWS Developer Tools?
Answer: The AWS Developer Tools may be a set of services designed to alter developers and IT operations professionals’ active DevOps to chop-chop and safely deliver software systems.
Together, these services assist you in firmly store and version management your application’s ASCII text file and mechanically build, test, and deploy your application to AWS or your on-premises atmosphere. you’ll be able to use AWS CodePipeline to orchestrate Associate in Nursing end-to-end software system unleash advancement exploitation of these services and third-party tools or integrate every service severally along with your existing tools.

35. however, does one tack a building project in AWS Devops?
Answer: A building project will be designed through the console or the AWS CLI. You specify the supply repository location, the runtime atmosphere, the build commands, the IAM role assumed by the instrumentality, and therefore the cipher category needed to run the build. Optionally, you’ll be able to specify build commands in an exceedingly buildspec.yml file.

36. What happens once a build is run in CodeBuild in AWS Devops?
Answer: Code Build can produce a short-lived cipher instrumentality of the category outlined within the building
project, load it with the required runtime atmosphere, transfer the ASCII text file, execute the commands designed within the project, transfer the generated object to Associate in Nursing S3 bucket, so destroy the cipher instrumentality. throughout the build, CodeBuild can stream the build output to the service console and Amazon CloudWatch Logs.

37. Why AWS DevOps Matters?
Answer: software systems and therefore the net have remodeled the globe and its industries, from searching to amusement to banking. software system now not simply supports a business; rather it becomes Associate in Nursing integral element of each a part of a business.
Companies move with their customers through software systems delivered as online services or applications and on all varieties of devices. They conjointly use a software system to extend operational efficiencies by reworking each a part of the worth chain, like supplying, communications, and operations.
In a similar means that physical merchandise firms remodeled, however, the style, build, and deliver product exploitation industrial automation throughout the twentieth century, firms in today’s world should remodel however they build and deliver software systems.

38. What are the elements concerned with Amazon internet Services?
Answer: There are four elements concerned and areas below.Amazon S3: with this, one will retrieve the key info that is occupied in making cloud structural style, and therefore the quantity of made info can also be kept during this element that’s the consequence of the key such as.Amazon EC2: useful to run an oversized distributed system on the Hadoop cluster. Automatic parallelization and job planning will be achieved by this element. Amazon SQS: this element acts as a negotiator between totally different controllers. conjointly worn for artifact needs those are obtained by the manager of Amazon.Amazon SimpleDB: helps in storing the shift position log and therefore the errands dead by the customers.

39. outline auto-scaling?
Answer: Autoscaling is one of the exceptional options of AWS wherever it permits you to rearrange and robotically stipulate and spin up recent examples while not the necessity for your involvement. this could be achieved by setting brinks and metrics to observe. If those entrances are overcome, a recent example of your choice is designed, spun up, and traced into the burden planner assortment.

40. however is AWS OpsWorks totally different than AWS CloudFormation?
Answer: Roman deity Works and Cloud Formation each support application modeling, deployment, configuration, management, and connected activities. each supports a large style of a branch of knowledge patterns, from easy internet applications to extremely complicated applications. AWS OpsWorks and AWS Cloud Formation dissent in abstraction level and areas of focus.
AWS Cloud Formation could be a building block service that allows the client to manage nearly any AWS resource via JSON-based domain-specific language. It provides
foundational capabilities for the total breadth of AWS, while not prescribing a specific model for development and operations. Customers outline templates and use them to
provision and manage AWS resources, operational systems, and application code, developers. To do this, AWS OpsWorks employs a configuration management model that supported ideas like stacks and layers and provides integrated experiences
for key activities like readying, monitoring, auto-scaling, and automation. Compared to AWS CloudFormation, AWS OpsWorks supports a narrower vary of application-oriented AWS resource sorts as well as Amazon EC2 instances, Amazon east by south volumes, Elastic IPs, and Amazon CloudWatch metrics

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