IOT Interview Questions & Answers Pdf
1. What are the main Challenges of Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: Like any other technology there are challenges which make the viability of IoT doubtful.
Security is one of the major concerns of experts who believe virtually endless connected devices and information sharing can severely compromise one?s security and well being. Unlike other hacking episodes which compromise online data and privacy with IoT devices can open gateway for an entire network to be hacked.
One such flaw is well presented by Andy Greenberg on wired.com where he works with hackers to remotely kill his Jeep on the highway. Another very relevant example is provided by W. David Stephenson in his post-Amazon Echo: is it the smart home Trojan Horse? You can estimate the amount of personal and private data the connected devices will be producing once they are on a network. The major challenge for IoT tech companies is to figure out how communication in the internet of things realm can be made truly secure.
2. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have on the Transportation Sector?
Answer: Transportation systems are becoming increasingly connected. New motor vehicles are equipped with features such as global positioning systems (GPS) and in-vehicle entertainment, as well as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), which utilize sensors in the vehicle to assist the driver, for example with parking and emergency braking. Further connection of vehicle systems enables fully autonomous or self-driving automobiles, which are predicted to be commercialized in the next 5-20 years.
Additionally, IoT technologies can allow vehicles within and across modes? including cars, buses, trains, airplanes, and unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to “talk” to one another and to components of the IoT infrastructure, creating intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Potential benefits of ITS may include increased safety and collision avoidance, optimized traffic flows, and energy savings, among others.
3. How Does the Internet of Things (IoT) Work?
Answer: The IoT is not separate from the Internet, but rather, a potentially huge extension and expansion of it. The ? things? that form the basis of the IoT are objects. They could be virtually anything? streetlights, thermostats, electric meters, fitness trackers, factory equipment, automobiles, unmanned aircraft systems (UASs or drones), or even cows or sheep in a field. What makes an object part of the IoT is embedded or attached computer chips or similar components that give the object both a unique identifier and Internet connectivity. Objects with such components are often called “smart”?such as smart meters and smart cars.
Internet connectivity allows a smart object to communicate with computers and with other smart objects. Connections of smart objects to the Internet can be wired, such as through Ethernet cables, or wireless, such as via a Wi-Fi or cellular network.
To enable precise communications, each IoT object must be uniquely identifiable. That is accomplished through an Internet Protocol (IP) address, a number assigned to each Internet-connected device, whether a desktop computer, a mobile phone, a printer, or an IoT object. Those IP addresses ensure that the device or object sending or receiving information is correctly identified.
4. What is Wi-Fi Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: Counted as the most mature wireless radio technology, Wi-Fi is predominant communication technology chosen for IoT applications. Already existing protocols like WPS make the integration of internet of things devices easier with the existing network. If we talk about transmission then Wi-Fi offers the best power-per-bit efficiency. However, power consumption when devices are dormant is much higher with conventional Wi-Fi designs. The solution is provided by protocols like BLE and ZigBee that reduce power consumption by sensors when devices are dormant.
A most important use of Wi-Fi is in the applications where IP stack compliance is needed and there is high data transmission. For instance in applications sharing audio, video or remote device control.
As the prerequisites of the internet of things are scaling up, companies are working on more integrated solutions. But even at present, there are many solutions available for anyone who is trying to build up the internet of things applications around the major three IoT components. Vendors
5. Explain what is the role does the network play in the Internet of Everything?
Answer: Well, the network itself plays an important role in the word of the Internet of Things, it is a driving factor for bringing all the different systems together which work hand in hand and show us a better future or betterment in every process.
It provides an intelligent, manageable and secure infrastructure for better execution.
6. So what are the main challenges of the Internet of Things implementation?
Answer: So far, we have talked about how good Internet of Things can be to the businesses and the individuals but it also comes with a second side of the knife. The first and foremost issue with implementing the Internet of Things is the Security aspect. As the data is exchanged over the internet it is very easy for cybercriminals to come up with a system which can actually break into the network and steal the valuable information. Consider the above scenario happening into the healthcare industry where the patient records are exposed to the public.
As the devices are connected to a single network, it is easy for the cybercriminals to inject a virus which can totally damage the entire hardware which results in a huge loss. This can also happen if we have not focused much on the security aspects.
7. What is Bluegiga APx4 Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: BLE and Wi-Fi together can be used without interference as they are compliable to coexistence protocols. The Bluegiga APx4 is one such solution which supports both BLE and Wi-Fi and is based on 450MHz ARM9 processor.
8. What does IoT stand for? The full form for IoT is “Internet of Things”.
Answer: The Internet of things is nothing but a network of various physical instruments or devices and other embedded items which with electronics, software, actuators over network connectivity. Using this network connectivity, a free flow of information can be collected and at the same time, it can exchange the data.
9. What are the risks and challenges that we should be aware of when it comes to the Internet of Everything?
The risks and challenges that everyone should be aware of when it comes to the Internet of Everything are:
3. Network congestion
4. Electricity consumption at the peaks
10. Will, the availability of High-speed internet be a major drawback in the Internet of Things development and implementation?
Answer: Yes, the availability of High-speed internet will be a major drawback in the Internet of Things development and implementation because it is one of the major requirement for the Internet of things to work efficiently and effectively.
11. What’s the connection of IoT with Big Data and how is it going to be affected?
Answer: A huge volume of data is being generated as a result of the addition of new sources. In fact, 2.5 Quintillion bytes of data is being generated every day. Internet of Things, Big Data and cloud are all interconnected. As data is not just growing in size but also in variety, there is an increased focus on analyzing it in real-time to extract important insights. There is a need to develop more effective tools to leverage big data as conventional tools to store and process data are not enough to handle big data.
12. What is the difference between the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Sensor Business?
Answer: Sensors can be used in lots of different ways, many of which don’t need to be internet-connected.
IoT also includes the control side, not just the sensing side.
13. Will IoT actually work over the internet or will it have its own dedicated wide area network?
Answer: Interoperability between various wireless and networking standards is still an issue and something that forums and standards bodies are trying to address. According to Franks, businesses have to collaborate on standards to create strong ecosystems for a range of industries, otherwise, the industry will remain fragmented.
“The IoT is a whole myriad of different ways of connecting things? it could be fixed, Wi-Fi NFC, cellular, ultra-narrow band or even Zigbee. You have to mix and match what is best for each task,” he says. “Interoperability is essential, for economies of scale.”
14. What is a “Thing” in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: The “Thing” commonly referred to by the concept of the Internet of Things is any item that can contain an embedded, connected computing device. A “Thing” in the IoT could be a shipping container with an RFID tag or a consumer’s watch with a WiFi chip that sends fitness data or short messages to a server somewhere on the Internet. (Company)
15. Why is the Internet of Everything happening now?
Answer: The explosion of new connections joining the Internet of Everything is driven by the development of IP-enabled devices, the increase in global broadband availability and the advent of IPv6.
16. What companies are working on Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: At this point, the easier question might be who is?t working on an IoT product. Big names like Samsung, LG, Apple, Google, Lowe’s and Philips are all working on connected devices, as are many smaller companies and startups. Research group Gartner predicts that 4.9 billion connected devices will be in use this year, and the number will reach 25 billion by 2020.
17. Why is the Internet of Everything important?
Answer: The Internet of Everything brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals and countries.
18. What risks and challenges should be considered in the Internet of Everything?
Answer: Some important considerations in the Internet of Everything include privacy, security, energy consumption, and network congestion.
19. What are the industrial applications for wireless sensor networks Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: You can easily and cheaply buy sensors that can measure a variety of variables that would be interesting in industrial applications, for example (and this is for sure not a complete list): light or sound intensity; voltage; current; pressure; temperature; rotational position; XYZ orientation; compass direction; acceleration; location; fluid flow rate and so on.
These sensors can be interrogated by the microcontroller, and data stored to memory card or communicated in realtime to other systems via Bluetooth, Zigbee, WiFi, Ethernet, serial, USB, infrared and so on.
The inexpensive nature of these microcontrollers (for example Google for ESP8266 to see a WiFi-enabled microcontroller) means that you could deploy a large number of these in an industrial setting (even in hazardous environments) and gather data without large capital investment and without the worry of “what if it gets destroyed”?
There must be so many industrial applications of this technology that it’s impossible to enumerate the possibilities. The limiting factor is really only “how can we process all of this data”?
20. What is the difference between Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT) network (sensor)?
The wireless sensor network is the foundation of IoT applications.
WSN is the network of motes, formed to observe, to study or to monitor physical parameters of the desired application.
For example – Motes deployed in Agriculture land, monitor Temp-Humidity or even soil moisture, who gathers data and with perfect data analysis produce results about crop yields – quality or quantity.
IoT is the network of physical objects controlled and monitored over the internet.
Now just as WSN, an IoT application, you will encounter the monitoring of physical parameters. But desired outcomes are a little different.
IoT is more about M2M, it is more about bringing smartness into daily objects.
For example – Device hooked to your Thermostat monitors surrounding temperature and adjust it to the most preferred setting for
21. How will the Internet of Things impact the sustainability of the business and will it have any impact on the environment
Answer: Well, with the help of the Internet of Things will definitely have a positive impact on the existing processes and the execution. For example, with the help of the Internet of Things, the street light systems can be managed way better than what we are going through now. Using an automation process the street lighting system can be better managed and a lot of electricity can be saved and a lot of power could be used elsewhere where it is really needed. Also, with effective management, the number of carbon emissions could also be reduced to a drastic level because the street light system is effectively and efficiently managed. So thus, making a positive impact on the process itself and also has a good impact on the environment.
22. What is the impact of the Internet of Things have on Healthcare sector?
Answer: To be honest, with you there will be a tremendous growth when the Internet of Things services are implemented in the healthcare sector. The first and foremost and the biggest problem is providing quality healthcare service to every individual has been a major challenge for all the countries. With the help of the Internet of Things, a lot of smart devices and equipment have been designed to cater to this problem. The approach of Telemedicine and Telehealth is one of the biggest achievement in this modern era. All this is happened because of the strong network channel integrated with a wide variety of smart tools which are utilized in the day to day health care evaluation of an individual. As of now, we have seen companies evolving in this space where they are trying to provide doctor consultation virtually when they need it at night or at an emergency level.
It has a lot of positive impacts in terms of the service provided by the companies and in next few years the doctor and patient interaction will completely redefine and it will be solving a lot of current-day challenges. Some of them can be:
1. Booking appointments in a standard schedule
2. Traveling to the hospital with the patient
3. Interacting with 10 different people about the disease and then finally go see a doctor etc
23. What would be the impact of the Internet of Things on the job market, do you see any possible job cuts?
Answer: Well, to be very blunt about this, we will be facing job cuts where the machines will take over some of the jobs which need persistence and accuracy. But on the brighter side, the individuals get to learn new skills to dominate the machines and make their own space. This has been the law of nature we have something today to reduce the burden and in the next few months or days, we have a new problem to deal with. So I see this on an optimistic way of dealing our day to day problems
24. Can you list out the companies that are working on the Internet of Things?
Answer: At this point in time, the answer is who is not working on the Internet of Things. To the matter of fact, most of the companies are actually taking the benefits of this process and making improvements to a certain level where their overall execution has reached a certain optimum level.
25. Does the Internet of Everything talk about CISCO based or IBM based architecture?
Answer: Well, the Internet of Everything doesn’t describe any information on specific architecture and it is not solely owned by Cisco and IBM
26. What do you think the Internet of Things can completely replace the human mind and take its own decisions?
Answer: No, I completely disagree with this caption. Internet of Things cannot completely replace the human mind when it comes to decisions, the way it is built is to give us the probability of something on statistical data and provide an option for the individual so that more accurate decisions can be taken but not to an extent where the human mind is replaced with the robots.
27. Can you name some of the industries which have benefited the most from IoT?
Answer: There are, already, many successful IoT implementations. The world’s largest producer of the printing press, Heidelberg (with a market share of nearly 50% of the world), has transformed their business by building connected printing presses. Jaguar Land Rover is another example of successful IoT implementation; they implemented connected car project which has become a differentiator in the high-end automotive market, creating high levels of brand loyalty. Latest in the list of successful IoT implementation is Amazon Go, which has revolutionized the retail industry. Amazon Go has merged the digital world with the real world for creating an amazing customer experience
28. How do you think IoT will shape in the years ahead? Will it lead to something bigger?
Answer: Gartner has predicted that by 2020 more than 50 billion devices will be connected to the internet in one way or the other. With the sensors embedded in these devices, the primary aim is to make these devices autonomous. A parallel society of more than 100 billion smart, intelligent, self-reliant and autonomous machines will be built along with human society. These machines will certainly help us in making business and production processes efficient. We are already a part of an intelligence-driven world. It will enhance the continuous process of human evolution through a series of new inventions.
29. What is Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT)?
Answer: Nokia originally introduced this protocol as Wibree in 2006. Also known as Bluetooth Smart this protocol provides the same range coverage with much-reduced power consumption as the original Bluetooth. It has similar bandwidth with narrow spacing as used by Zig Bee. Low power latency and lower complexity make BLE more suitable to incorporate into low-cost microcontrollers.
Low power latency and lower complexity make BLE more suitable to incorporate into low-cost microcontrollers.
As far as the application is concerned BLE is in the healthcare sector. As wearable health monitors are becoming prevalent the sensors of these devices can easily communicate with a smartphone or any medical instrument regularly using BLE protocol.
30. What impacts will the Internet of Things (IoT) have?
Answer: Many observers predict that the growth of the IoT will bring positive benefits through enhanced integration, efficiency, and productivity across many sectors of the U.S. and global economies.
Among those commonly mentioned are agriculture, energy, health care, manufacturing, and transportation. Significant impacts may also be felt more broadly on economic growth, infrastructure and cities, and individual consumers. However, both policy and technical challenges, including security and privacy issues, might inhibit the growth and impact of IoT innovations.