Sharepoint Developer Interview Questions

1. What is a Module in SharePoint?

A module is a file or collection of file instances that define the location where the files are installed during site creation.
They are used to implement a Web Part Page on the site.
Modules can be defined by using a module element within a feature definition file.

2. Explain Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server?
Answer: SharePoint Portal Server is a portal server that connects people, teams, and knowledge across business processes.
It integrates information from various systems into one secure solution through single sign-on and enterprise application integration capabilities.
It provides flexible deployment and management tools, and facilitates end-to-end collaboration through data aggregation, organization, and searching.
It enables users to quickly find relevant information through customization and personalization of portal content and layout as well as through audience targeting.

3. What SharePoint development tool works best to create custom workflows?
Answer: A candidate that jumps right to SharePoint Designer as an answer may not be well-versed in building complex workflows. The more thoughtful candidate will include a reference to Visual Studio, which allows the workflow to be installed at multiple locations and can include more than 20 steps in the workflow process. Additionally, only Visual Studio allows for the workflow to move back and forth between status changes. Using SharePoint Designer, work only moves forward through states, never backward. This can be problematic when you need to send something backward in the process. The SharePoint 2010 Development Tutorial covers the new tools offered through Visual Studio, along with many other additions to the 2010 software product.

4. What is meant by Visio Services?
Answer: The Visio Services will allow the users to share and view Microsoft Visio Web drawings. The service also enables data-connected Microsoft Visio 2010 Web drawings to be refreshed and updated from various data sources.

5. What is a .ddf file and what does it have to do with SharePoint Solution creation?
Answer: The PDF file is a data directive file and is used when building the SharePoint solution bundle specifying the source files and their destination locations. The important thing for someone to understand is that the .ddf file will be passed as a parameter to the MAKECAB utility to orchestrate the construction of the SharePoint solution file.

6. What are the advanced features of MOSS 2007?
Answer: User Interface (UI) and navigation enhancements Document management enhancements* The new Workflow engine* Office 2007 Integration* New Web Parts* New Site-type templates* Enhancements to List technology* Web Content Management* Business Data Catalog* Search enhancements* Report Center* Records Management* Business Intelligence and Excel Server* Forms Server and InfoPath* The “Features” feature* Alternate authentication providers and Forms-based authentication.

7. Write the features of the search component of Office SharePoint Server 2007?
The search component of Office SharePoint Server 2007 has been significantly enhanced by this release of SharePoint Products and Technologies. New features provide:* A consistent and familiar search experience.* Increased relevance of search results.* New functions to search for people and expertise.* Ability to index and search data in line-of-business applications and* Improved manageability and extensibility.

8. What are the features of the new Content management in Office SharePoint 2007?
Answer: The new and enhanced content management features in Office SharePoint Server 2007 fall within three areas:* Document management* Records management* Web content management office SharePoint Server 2007 builds on the core document management functionality provided by Windows SharePoint Services 3.0, including check-in and check out, versioning, metadata, and role-based granular access controls. Organizations can use this functionality to deliver enhanced authoring, business document processing, Web content management and publishing, records management, policy management, and support for multilingual publishing.

9. How will you deploy an existing web application or website in SharePoint?
Answer: You would need to wrap the web application in a solution package to deploy in 12 hives or say SharePoint. It is recommended to create a feature first, and then wrap everything in a Solution package. See exampleDepoly a Custom aspx Page in SharePoint

10. What are the actual advantages of SharePoint Portal Services (SPS) over SharePoint TeamServices (STS)?
Answer: SharePoint Portal Services (SPS) has MUCH better document management. It has check-in,check-out, versioning, approval, publishing, subscriptions, categories, etc. STS does not have these features, or they are very scaled back. SharePoint team Services (SPS) has a better search engine and can crawl multiple content sources. STS cannot. STS is easier to manage and much better for a team environment where there is not much Document Management going on. SPS is better for an organization, or where Document Management is crucial.

11. How to Synchronize the User Profiles with Active Directory in MOSS 2007?

1. Log into the Shared Services Administration site
2. Click on User Profiles and Properties
3. Click on Configure Profile Import
4. Under “Source” select the domain you wish to import from
5. Under “Default Access Account” select either the default content access account or specific account details – this account must have permission to access the Active Directory users (default) OU container
6. Click OK
7. Now select either a Full or Incremental import, a Full import will ensure that users deleted from Active Directory are removed from the profile database
8. Once the import has finished you can select “View Import Log” to reveal details about the import.

12. How to create links to the mapped network drives?
Answer: The creating of links to mapped network drives in WSS v3 or MOSS 2007 can be done through the new content type for .lnk files.

13. Mention the types of authentications available for SharePoint 2010?

The types of authentications that are available for SharePoint 2010 are of 3 types.
They are:

1) Claims Authentication
2) Windows Authentication
3) Forms-based Authentication

14. What are the benefits of Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007?
Answer: Provide a simple, familiar, and consistent user experience.* Boost employee productivity by simplifying everyday business activities.* Help meet regulatory requirements through comprehensive control over the content.* Effectively manage and repurpose content to gain increased business value.* Simplify organization-wide access to both structured and unstructured information across disparate systems.* Connect people with information and expertise.* Accelerate shared business processes across organizational boundaries.* Share business data without divulging sensitive information.

Enable people to make better-informed decisions by presenting business-critical information in one central location.* Provide a single, integrated platform to manage intranet, extranet, and Internet applications across the enterprise.

15. Will SharePoint Portal Server and Team Services ever merge?
Answer: The products will come together because they are both developed by the Office team.

16. What does partial trust mean the Web Part developer?
Answer: If an assembly is installed into the BIN directory, the code must be ensured that it provides error handling if required permissions are not available. Otherwise, unhandled security exceptions may cause the Web Part to fail and may affect page rendering on the page where the Web Part appears.

17. For more information, see “How do I create a custom policy file?
Answer: Recommended approach. This option is the most secure. An assembly can operate with a unique policy that meets the minimum permission requirements for the assembly. By creating a custom security policy, you can ensure the destination server can run your WebParts.Requires the most configuration of all three options. Install your assemblies in the GACEasy to implement. This grants Full trust to your assembly without affecting the trust level of assemblies installed in the BIN directory. This option is less secure. Assemblies installed in the GAC are available to all virtual servers and applications on a server running Windows SharePoint Services. This could represent a potential security risk as it potentially grants a higher level of permission to your assembly across a larger scope than necessary in a development environment, you must reset IIS every time you recompile assemblies. Licensing issues may arise due to the global availability of your assembly.

18. Discuss the differences between a Site Definition and a Site Template?

The differences between a Site Definition and a Site Template are discussed as follows:
Site Definitions are stored on the hard drive of the SharePoint front end servers, which are used by the SharePoint application to generate the sites users can create. Site Templates are created by users as a copy of a site they have configured and modified so that they do not have to recreate lists, libraries, views, and columns every time they need a new instance of a site.

19. How to create or deploy Web parts in SharePoint 2010?
Answer: Web part is a reusable functionality, which can be inserted in the web pages and can be configured by the end-users.
To create a web part, go to Visual Studio and create a new project > select SharePoint tab > select Visual Web Part > select on which local web site you want to deploy the web part > click on Validate and Click finish.
Now, to deploy the project just go to > Solution Explorer > select your
project > Right-click on it > just select deploy.

20. What are the various classes in the Server Object Model from a development point of view?

Following are the classes in Server Object Model from a development point of view:

  • SPFarm
  • SPWebApplication
  • SPSite
  • SPWeb
  • list
  • SPListItem
  • SPDocumentLibrary.

21. What is meant by Performance Point Services?
Answer: The Performance Pint Services will allow the users to monitor and analyze a business by building dashboards, scorecards, and key performance indicators (KPIs).

22. Explain the difference between Classic mode authentication and Claims-based authentication?
Answer: Classic authentication will support NT authentication types like Kerberos, NTLM, Basic, Digest, and anonymous.
Claims based authentication uses claims identities against a trusted identity provider. 

23. Name the various input forms that can be created for a workflow?

  • Association form
  • Initiation form
  • Modification form
  • Task edit form.

24. What has changed with 12 hives in SharePoint?
In 12 hive structure, there are 3 New Folders that are added in.
they are:
1) UserCode – This folder is used for the files to support sandboxed solutions.
2) WebClients – This folder is used for the Client Object Model.
3) WebServices – This folder is used for the .svc files.

25. What changes are needed to the old Solution files?
You should rewrite and recompile any code that refers to files and resources in “12 hive”.
SharePoint 2010 object model contains many changes and enhancements, but our custom code will still compile and, will run as expected.

26. Is it possible to download information directly from a SharePoint site to a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
Answer: No, it is not possible to download information directly from a SharePoint site to a personal digital assistant (PDA).
But you can exchange contact information lists with Microsoft Outlook.

27. Is it possible to get the domain name for a Web site?
Answer: No, you cannot get the domain name for your website.
At present, there is no such offering of domain names for SharePoint sites.

28. How much time does it take to set up the initial team Web site?
Answer: It takes only a few minutes to create a complete Web site.
Preformatted forms let you and your team members contribute to the site by filling out lists. Standard forms include announcements, events, contacts, tasks, surveys, discussions and links.

29. Explain picture libraries?
Answer: Picture libraries will allow you to access a photo album and view it as a slide show or thumbnails or a film strip. You can have a separate folder for each event, category, etc.

30. What is meant by Central administration?
Answer: The Central Administration is a site used by admins to manage and configure settings for SharePoint web applications or the whole farm. 

31. What are event receivers or event Handlers in SharePoint?
Answer: Event Receivers or Event handlers are created to handle the basic actions or events against an item, list\library, a web or a site.

There are two kinds of events in SharePoint. They are:

1) Synchronous Events: Like ItemAdding (not added yet), Uploading (document not uploaded yet), etc.
2) Asynchronous Events: ItemAdded (after the item is added), Uploaded (after a document is uploaded)
Events receivers can be written to override an event.
E.g. ItemAdded event to change the name of an item once it is added.

32. What is meant by stsadm?
Answer: It is a Command-line tool used for the administration of Office SharePoint 2007 (or MOSS 2007) servers and sites. Basic operations like adding a solution or installing activating and features are usually done by stsadm.

33. Where is stsadm located?
Answer: The stsadm is located on the below-given path.
C:\Program Files\Common Files\ shared\web server extensions\12\bin34. Explain about Content types in SharePoint ?_text]Answer:
A content type is a WSS type definition which is flexible and reusable. It is used to define the columns and behavior for an item in a list or a document in a document library.
For example, you can create a content type for a leave approval document with a unique set of columns, an event handler, and its document template and attach it with document library/libraries.

35. How is AllowUnsafeUpdates used?
Answer: When a developer updates the content database without requiring a security validation AllowUnsafeUpdates property is set to true.
– One the operation is carried out, the property is again set to false

36. Can a list definition be derived from a custom content type?
Yes, a list definition can derive from a content type which can be seen in the schema.XML of the list definition in the element.

37. What is a Field Control?
Answer: Field controls are simple ASP.NET 2.0 server controls that provide the basic field functionality of SharePoint. They provide basic general functionality such as displaying or editing list data as it appears on SharePoint list pages.

38. What does Allow Unsafe Updates do?
Answer: If your code modifies Windows SharePoint Services data in some way, you may need to allow unsafe updates on the Web site, without requiring a security validation. You can do by setting the AllowUnsafeUpdates property.

39. What does Run With Elevated Privileges do?
Answer: There is certain object model calls model that require site-administration privileges. To bypass the access-denied error, we use RunWithElevatedPrivileges property when the request is initiated by a nonprivileged user. We can successfully make calls into the object model by calling the RunWithElevatedPrivileges method provided by the SPSecurity class.

40. What are SPSite and SPWeb objects, and what is the difference between each of the objects?
Answer: The SPSite object represents a collection of sites (site collection [a top-level site and all its subsites]). The SPWeb object represents an instance SharePoint Web, and SPWeb object contains things like the actual content. An SPSite object contains the various subsites and the information regarding them.

41. What does an SPWebApplication object represent?
Answer: The SPWebApplication objects represent a SharePoint Web Application, which essentially is an IIS virtual server. Using the class you can instigate high-level operations, such as getting all the features of an entire Web Application instance or doing high-level creation operations like creating new Web Applications through code.

42. Would you use SPWebApplication to get information like the SMTP address of the SharePoint site?
Answer: Yes, since this is a Web Application level setting. You would iterate through each SPWebApplication in the SPWebApplication collection, and then use the appropriate property calls (OutboundMailServiceInstance) to return settings regarding the mail service such as the SMTP address.

43. How do you return SharePoint List items using SharePoint web services?
Answer: To retrieve list items from a SharePoint list through Web Services, you should use the lists.ASMX web service by establishing a web reference in Visual Studio. The lists.asmx exposes the GetListItems method, which will allow the return of the full content of the list in an XML node. It will take parameters like the GUID of the name of the list you are querying against, the GUID of the view you are going to query, etc.

Side Question: I got asked how I built queries with the lists.ASMX web service. To build queries with this service, one of the parameters that the GetListItems method exposes is the option to build a CAML query. There are other ways to do this as well, but that was how I answered it.

44. When retrieving List items using SharePoint Web Services, how do you specify explicit credentials to be passed to access the list items?
Answer: To specify explicit credentials with a Web Service, you generally instantiate the web service and then using the credentials properties of the Web Service object you use the System.Net.NetworkCredential class to specify the username, password, and domain that you wish to pass when making the web service call and operations.

45. which defines the Site template?
Answer: E.g. Team Sites used to create a Site in SharePoint. All the out-of-box site Templates like Blog, Wiki, and Team Site, etc. can be found in C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\web server extensions\12\TEMPLATE\

46. What is the use of the Content Query Web Part in SharePoint?
Answer: Content Query Web Part could be used to create custom views of data that is queried from many sources, and present that data all in one place. After you add the Content By Query Web Part to a Web page, you can customize the Web Part’s querying behaviors and also the look and feel to display data appropriately.

It can also be used in many scenarios, some examples below:

1.If you have a site collection with a root site and you want to bring in and display the most recent blog posts from all blog sites within its site collection…. Yes, you can use CQWP for this.
2. If you want to bring in and show all the events in a group calendar on the root site from the subsites created below.
3. You can also bring in data views from a document library or lists and filter it and show it dynamically.
4. If you have a site collection with a root site and you want to bring in and display the Announcements from all sites within its site collection. Yes, you can use CQWP for this.
But the main point to remember while using CQWP we can display only two columns Title and Description.
If you want to display more custom columns then we need to edit the XSLT then we will display how many columns we want.

47. What is the relationship between Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server and Microsoft Windows Services?
Answer: Microsoft SharePoint Products and Technologies (including SharePoint Portal Server and Windows SharePoint Services) deliver highly scalable collaboration solutions with flexible deployment and management tools. Windows SharePoint Services provides sites for team collaboration, while Share Point Portal Server connects these sites, people, and business processes-facilitating knowledge sharing and smart organizations. SharePoint Portal Server also extends the capabilities of Windows SharePoint Services by providing organizational and management tools for SharePoint sites, and by enabling teams to publish information to the entire organization.

48. What is CAML, and why would you use it?
Answer: CAML stands for Collaborative Application Markup Language. CAML is an XML based language that provides data constructs that build up the SharePoint fields, view, and is used for table definition during site provisioning. CAML is responsible for rending data and the resulting HTML that is output to the user in SharePoint. CAML can be used for a variety of circumstances, overall is used to query, build and customize SharePoint based sites. A general use would be building a CAML query in a SharePoint WebPart to retrieve values from a SharePoint list.

49. What is an impersonation, and when would you use impersonation?
Answer: Impersonation can provide the functionality of executing something in the context of a different identity, for example assigning an account to users with anonymous access. You would use impersonation to access resources on behalf of the user with a different account, that normally, that wouldn’t be able to access or execute something.

50. Which is better – SPS or STS??
Before we begin – let us see what do these two abbreviations stand for.

1. SPS means SharePoint Portal Services
2. STS means SharePoint Team Services

The document management system in SPS is better than STS.
The search engine in SPS is better, more efficient and possesses the capability to crawl multiple content sources in comparison to STS.
If Document Management is not required, STS is easier to manage for a team environment while SPS is better for an organization where Document Management is required.

51. What deployment mechanism can you use to instigate Code Access Security attributes for your WebParts?
Answer: SharePoint solution files can add to handle code access security deployment issues. This is done in the element in the SharePoint solution manifest.XML, which makes it easier to get assemblies the appropriate permissions to operate in the bin directory of the web application.

52. When would you use an event receiver?
Answer: Since event receivers respond to events, you could use a receiver for something as simple as canceling an action, such as deleting a document library by using the Cancel property. This would essentially prevent users from deleting any documents if you wanted to maintain the retention of stored data.

53. What are Site Columns?
Answer: Site columns are pre-defined data columns that are re-used in various content types. A Content type is usually a collection of site columns.
E.g. you can create a site column “Category” with a choice datatype along with the pre-defined values “It”, “Hr”. This column then can be added to any content type in your list or library.

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