Pivotal Cloud Foundry Interview Questions And Answers

1. What is Cloud Foundry?
Answer: Cloud Foundry is an open-source cloud computing platform originally developed in-house at VMware. It is now owned by Pivotal Software, which is a joint venture made up of VMware, EMC, and General Electric.

2. What is OAuth2 Server (UAA) and Login Server?
Answer: The OAuth2 server (the UAA) and Login Server work together to provide identity management.

3. What is Diego Cell?
Answer: Application instances, application tasks, and staging tasks all run as Garden containers on the Diego Cell VMs. The Diego cell rep component manages the lifecycle of those containers and the processes running in them, reports their status to the Diego BBS, and emits their logs and metrics to Loggregator.

4. How Diego Balances App Processes?
Answer: Diego balances app processes over the virtual machines (VMs) in a Cloud Foundry (CF) installation using the Diego Auction. When new processes need to be allocated to VMs, the Diego Auction determines which ones should run on which machines. The auction algorithm balances the load on VMs and optimizes app availability and resilience.

5. What is SSH Proxy Authentication?
Answer: The SSH proxy hosts the user-accessible SSH endpoint and is responsible for authentication, policy enforcement, and access controls in the context of Cloud Foundry. After a user has successfully authenticated with the proxy, the proxy will attempt to locate the target container and create an SSH session to a daemon running inside the container. After both sessions have been established, the proxy will manage the communication between the user’s SSH client and the container’s SSH Daemon.

6. Can you describe Container Security in CF?


  • Container Mechanics provides an overview of container isolation.
  • Inbound and Outbound Traffic from CF provides an overview of container networking and describes how CF administrators customize container network traffic rules for their deployment.
  • Container Security describes how CF secures containers by running application instances in unprivileged containers and by hardening them.

7. What is Container-to-Container Networking?
Answer: The Container-to-Container Networking feature enables app instances to communicate with each other directly. Container-to-Container Networking integrates with Garden-runs in a Diego deployment. The Container-to-Container Networking BOSH release includes several core components, as well as swappable components.

8. What is a Stack?
Answer: A stack is a prebuilt root filesystem (rootfs) that supports a specific operating system. For example, Linux-based systems need /use and /bin directories at their root. The stack works in tandem with a buildpack to support applications running in compartments. Under Diego architecture, cell VMs can support multiple stacks.

9. What is the use of API in Cloud Foundry?
Answer: There are certain tasks that can simply be performed with the help of API in Cloud Foundry. It is possible to simply construct the apps and then integrating the cloud services with other structure. API also avoids the needs to write lengthy programs and thus save a lot of time. In addition to this, guidance on making the communication possible between different apps can also be assured through API.

10. What are the benefits of using Cloud Foundry?
Answer: The leading benefit of this platform as a service (PAAS) is its open source nature. Developers can easily keep up the pace without worrying about infrastructure and expertise. It is also compatible with a very large number of languages which makes it best for any type of results. In addition to this, Cloud Foundry is useful for both small as well as large scale apps. Moreover, this technology can easily be deployed and factors such as cost and expertise are not a big deal. There are several other benefits such as:

1. Centralized logging
2. Application Health Management
3. Application portability
4. Support for various IaaS providers
5. Dynamic routing
6. Application Auto-scaling

11. What are the different layers that define the architecture of Cloud Foundry?
Answer: Node Controller, Walrus, cloud Controller, Storage Controller, and Cluster Controller are the layers of cloud Foundry architecture. These layers are best in making the cloud environment reliable and developers can perform their tasks simply and quickly. Because of these layers, Cloud Foundry is the best technology.

12. Name the security laws that are implemented for data security in the cloud?
Answer: The first one is the Input Validation which controls the input data. The second law is File which controls and manages the data being employed in any of the files. Output reconciliation is another law which is liable for controlling the reconciliation of data from input to output.

13. What is the difference between Cloud Foundry and traditional data centers?
Answer: Traditional data centers were always having issues related to software or hardware and thus a lot of money is required. On the other side, Cloud Foundry is a good approach. It doesn’t need a lot of money to be invested for its maintenance as well as management. Also, in terms of scalability, Cloud Foundry is an excellent approach as compared to traditional data centers.

14. Why is Virtualization required in implementing the Cloud Foundry?
Answer: Handling service level policies are the first thing that demands virtualization in Cloud Foundry. In addition to this, handling cloud operating system is also made easy with virtualization. The most important is virtualization is very useful when it comes to keeping the user level and the backend level concepts different from each other. Moreover, it helps in cutting down the errors that declare their presence from time to time. 

15. What do you know about Hybrid and Community Cloud?
Answer: The Community cloud is considered when organizations with similar needs and goals need to share the cloud service. On the other side, the Hybrid Cloud consists of several service providers. It can be considered as an integration of both private and public cloud which is considered by organizations when they need both public as well as private clouds.

16. What is the purpose of the Cloud Foundry Foundation Developer Training and Certification Program?
Answer: The program follows a report issued by the Cloud Foundry Foundation in November 2016 that surveyed nearly 900 IT executives worldwide and revealed a growing gap of developers trained in cloud skills, posing a threat to enterprises’ ability to embrace digital transformation and maintain modern business core competency. The report found that 64 percent of IT pros agree there is now or will soon be a developer shortage. (Read the Identifying the Developer Gap Report here.) The survey found companies are doubling down on training internal engineering teams, rather than outsourcing or hiring — hence the specially formulated developer training and certification program. Performance-based, community-based and independent of any distribution vendor, the Cloud Foundry Foundation Developer Training and Certification Program is the best way for developers to demonstrate cloud skills and expertise and helps developers set themselves apart in a competitive job market. 

17. What Is Cloud Computing?
Answer: cloud computing is computing which is completely based on the Internet. It can also be defined as the next stage in the evolution of the Internet. Cloud computing uses the cloud (Internet) that provides the way to deliver the services whenever and wherever the user of the cloud needs. Companies use cloud computing to fulfill the needs of their customers, partners, and providers. Cloud computing includes vendors, partners, and business leaders as the three major contributors. The vendors are the one who provides applications and their related technology, infrastructure, hardware, and integration.

The partners are those who offer cloud services demand and provide support service to the customers. The business leaders are the ones who use or evaluate the cloud service provided by the partners. Cloud computing enables companies to treat their resources as a pool and not as independent resources.

18. Give A Brief Introduction Of Windows Azure Operating System?
Answer: The Windows Azure operating system is used for running cloud services on the Windows Azure platform, as it includes necessary features for hosting your services in the cloud. It also provides a runtime environment that consists of the Web server, computational services, basic storage, queues, management services, and load balancers. The operating system provides development. Fabric for development and testing of services before their deployment on the Windows Azure in the cloud.

19. Comment On The Security Of Cloud Computing?
Answer: It is a sub-domain of networks, computers and information security in a larger aspect. Cloud computing security is referred to as cloud computing. It is designed in such a way that it acts to safeguard the policies and technologies of organizations. Controls are deployed to protect applications, company’s data and framework of security protocols.

20. What Is The Difference Between Scalability And Elasticity?
Answer: Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on-demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

21. What Is The Security Aspects Provided With Cloud?
Answer: Security is one of the major aspects which come with any application and service used by the user. Companies or organizations remain much more concerned with the security provided with the cloud. There are many levels of security which have to be provided within a cloud environment such as:

Identity management: it authorizes the application service or hardware component to be used by authorized users.
Access control: permissions have to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of other users who are entering in the cloud environment.

Authorization and authentication: provision should be made to allow the authorized and authenticated people only to access and change the applications and data.

22. How cloud services are measured?
Answer: Cloud computing provides the services to the organizations so they can run their applications and install them on the cloud. Virtualization is used to deploy the cloud computing models as it provides a hidden layer between the user and the physical layer of the system. The cloud services are measured in terms of use. Pay as much as you use that can be on the basis of hours or months or years. Cloud services allow users to pay for only what they use and according to the demand, the charges or the prices gets increased. 

23. Do I need a Linux Foundation ID to register for the Certificate exam?
Answer: Yes, to register for the exam, you will need a Linux Foundation ID. If you do not already have a Linux Foundation ID, apply for one here. You will receive an email with the subject line: “Validate your Linux Foundation ID email.” Once completed, you can log in when prompted with your new Linux Foundation ID credentials.

24. What Is A Cloud Service?
Answer: A cloud service is a service that is used to build cloud applications. This service provides the facility of using the cloud application without installing it on the computer. It reduces the maintenance and support of the application as compared to those applications that are not developed using the cloud service. The different kinds of users can use the application from the cloud service, which may be public or private application.

25. Explain Hybrid And Community Cloud?
Answer: The hybrid cloud consists of multiple service providers. This model integrates various cloud services for Hybrid Web hosting. It is basically a combination of private and public cloud features. It is used by the company when a company has requirements for both the private and public clouds. Consider an example when an organization wants to implement the SaaS (Software as a Service) application throughout the company. The implementation requires security that can be provided by the private cloud used inside the firewall. The additional security can be provided by the VPN on the requirement. Now, the organization has both private and public cloud features.

The community cloud provides a number of benefits, such as privacy and security. This model, which is quite expensive, is used when the organizations having common goals and requirements are ready to share the benefits of the cloud service.

26. Mention The Basic Components Of A Server Computer In Cloud Computing?
Answer: The components used in less expensive client computers matches with the hardware components of a server computer in cloud computing. Although server computers are usually built from higher-grade components than client computers. Basic components include Motherboard, Memory, Processor, Network connection, Hard drives, Video, Power supply, etc.

27. What Does Software As A Service Provider?
Answer: Software as Service is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like google is doing, it is providing google docs for the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. It provides the applications to be created on the fly without adding or installing any extra software component. It provides built-in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents and share them with other people online.

28. What Are The Different Modes Of Software As A Service?
Answer: Software as a Service provides cloud application platform on which a user can create an application with the tools provided. The modes of software as a service are defined as:

Simple multi-tenancy: in this, each user has its own resources that are different from other users. It is an inefficient mode where the user has to put more time and money to add more infrastructure if the demand rises in less time to deliver.

Fine-grain multi-tenancy: in this, the functionality remains the same that the resources can be shared to many. But it is more efficient as the resources are shared not the data and permission within an application.

29. What Do You Understand From Vpn?
Answer: VPN stands for the virtual private network; it is a private cloud which manages the security of the data during the transport in the cloud environment. VPN allows an organization to make a public network as a private network and use it to transfer files and other resources on a network.

30. What Is The Use Of Eucalyptus In Cloud Computing Environment?
Answer: Eucalyptus stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems and provides an open source software infrastructure to implement clusters in the cloud computing platform. It is used to build private, public and hybrid clouds. It can also produce your own datacenter into a private cloud and allow you to extend the functionality to many other organizations. Eucalyptus provides APIs to be used with the web services to cope up with the demand of resources used in the private clouds.

31. Is it cost-effective to implement a private cloud rather than a public cloud and why?
Answer: It depends on the type of business that demands a cloud setup. Suppose if the subscription on a public cloud for an application that is to be deployed on OS images is proving to be more costly then to buy some new datacenters and maintain them. Then obviously the private cloud has to be set up instead of a public cloud. This public clouds follow utility billing methodology as an electricity bill for example.

32. What are some open source cloud computing platform databases?
Answer: Cloud computing platform has various databases that are in support. The open source databases that are developed to support it is as follows:

MongoDB: is an open source database system which is schema-free and document-oriented database. It is written in C++ and provides tables and high storage space.

CouchDB: is an open source database system based on Apache server and used to store the data efficiently.

LucidDB: is the database made in Java/C++ for data warehousing. It provides features and functionalities to maintain a data warehouse.

33. How User Will Gain From Utility Computing?
Answer: Utility computing allows the user to pay per use means whatever they are using only for that they have to pay. It is a plugin that needs to be managed by the organizations on deciding what type of services has to be deployed from the cloud. Utility computing allows the user to think and implement the services according to them. Most organizations go for a hybrid strategy that combines internally delivered services that are hosted or outsourced services.

34. How important is the platform as a service?
Answer: Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage, and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is also responsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world.

35. How does cloud computing provides on-demand functionality?
Answer: Cloud computing is a metaphor used for the internet. It provides on-demand access to virtualized IT resources that can be shared by others or subscribed by you. It provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. The pool consists of networks, servers, storage, applications, and services.

36. How the users and workspaces are organized by Cloud Foundry?
Answer: Cloud controller or manager can simply define or gas as well as workspaces within assign roles such as auditor, developer, and admin to every user to organize user access to control resource use and to the cloud. The UAA server simply braces access control and can store the information of user either internally or externally through SAML and LDAP.

37. What do you know about system integrators in Cloud Foundry?
Answer: These are very useful in providing a game plan of a complex process which is used to design a cloud platform. Integrator enables to build correct private and hybrid cloud network as they are equipped with all the information related to creating data center.

38. What do you know about hosting static files in Cloud Foundry?
Answer: After creating the account and setting up the command-line interface tool, applications can simply deploy. Generally, static files need a Web server such as Nginx or Apache. The platform undoubtedly takes care of configuration after this and applications can be hosted.

39. How will I, as a developer, benefit from Certification?
Answer: Organizations are looking for qualified developers that can be highly productive working on top of the Cloud Foundry platform. Our training program prepares you to work with Cloud Foundry and to understand how cloud-native applications are designed and built. Further, certification demonstrates to the many employers looking for qualified developers that you have passed a performance-based knowledge exam and you have the skills they’re looking for, both in terms of conceptual understanding and practical hands-on experience.

40. Is there training to prepare for the Certification exam?
Answer: Yes! Our Cloud Foundry for Developers eLearning course (or equivalent training from one of our training partners) provides developers with the knowledge necessary to be productive on the Cloud Foundry platform. Applying that knowledge, as well as spending time working with Cloud Foundry in a real-world setting, will prepare developers for the Cloud Foundry Certified Developer exam.

41. Who offers the Certification and administers the exam? Do they offer other certifications?
Answer: The Cloud Foundry Foundation, in partnership with the Linux Foundation, offers the Certification exam. The Linux Foundation offers three additional certifications: Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator; Linux Foundation Certified Engineer; and Certified OpenStack Administrator.

42. What Is A Cloud?
Answer: A cloud is a combination of hardware, networks, storage, services, and interfaces that helps in delivering computing as a service. It has broadly three users which are end-user, business management user, and cloud service, provider. The end-user is the one who uses the services provided by the cloud. The business management user in the cloud takes the responsibility of the data and the services provided by the cloud. The cloud service provider is the one who takes care or is responsible for the maintenance of the IT assets of the cloud. The cloud acts as a common center for its users to fulfill their computing needs.

43. What are the optimizing strategies used in the cloud?
Answer: To optimize the cost and other resources there is a concept of three-data-center which provides backups in cases of disaster recovery and allows you to keep all the data intact in the case of any failure within the system. System management can be done more efficiently by carrying out pre-emptive tasks on the services and the processes which are running for the job. Security can be more advanced to allow only limited users to access the services.

44. How To Secure Your Data For Transport In Cloud?
Answer: Cloud computing provides very good and easy to use the feature to an organization, but at the same time, it brings lots of question that how secure is the data, which has to be transported from one place to another in the cloud. So, to make sure it remains secure when it moves from point A to point B in the cloud, check that there is no data leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you sending.

45. What Are System Integrators?
Answer: Systems integrators are an important part of the cloud computing platform. It provides the strategy of the complicated process used to design a cloud platform. It includes well-defined architecture to find the resources and the characteristics which have to be included for cloud computing. Integrators plan the user’s cloud strategy implementation. Integrators have knowledge about data center creation and also allow more accurate private and hybrid cloud creation.

46. Is There Any Difference In Cloud Computing And Computing For Mobiles?
Answer: Mobile cloud computing uses the same concept but it just adds a device of mobile. Cloud computing comes into action when a task or data get kept on the internet rather than individual devices. It provides users on-demand access to the data which they have to retrieve. Applications run on the remote server and then given to the user to be able to, store and manage it from the mobile platform.

47. Explain Security management in terms of Cloud Computing?
Answer: Identity management access provides the authorization of application services.
Access control permission is given to the users to have complete controlling access of another user who is entering into the cloud environment.

Authentication and Authorization provides access to only the authorized and authenticated users only to access the data and applications

48. What are the components of Cloud Foundry?
Answer: Cloud Foundry components include a self-service application execution engine, an automation engine for application deployment and lifecycle management, and a scriptable command-line interface (CLI), as well as integration with development tools to ease deployment processes.

Cloud Foundry has an open architecture that includes a buildpack mechanism for adding frameworks, an application services interface, and a cloud provider interface.

49. What are Consul and BBS?
Answer: Cloud Foundry component VMs communicate with each other internally through HTTP and HTTPS protocols, sharing temporary messages and data stored in two locations:
Answer: A Consul server stores longer-lived control data, such as component IP addresses and distributed locks that prevent components from duplicating actions.

Diego’s Bulletin Board System (BBS) stores more frequently updated and disposable data such as cell and application status, unallocated work, and heartbeat messages. The BBS stores data in MySQL, using the Go MySQL Driver.

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