Pivotal Interview Questions And Answers

1. Where resources are stored in Cloud Foundry?
Answer: A Git system is there in Cloud foundry that is used on GitHub for controlling simply the build packs, source code, important documentation as well as other resources. It is also possible that developers use GitHub for custom configurations. Large binary files like droplets are stored in internal or external blobstore which is maintained by the Cloud Foundry. When it comes to sharing or storing the information which is temporary, Consul and MYSQL are being considered by Cloud Foundry.

2. How significant is the platform as a service?
Answer: PAAS (Platform as a service) is an extremely significant layer in cloud Foundry. It provides the application platform for the developers and is liable for offering entire virtualization of the infrastructure layer. This makes the platform work as a single server and maximum scalability can be assured without compromising with the app quality.

3. How did Cloud Foundry work?
Answer: Cloud Foundry is equipped with several subsystems that are capable of performing a large number of specialized functions. It simply serves and scale apps online without compiling a very complex code. Also, it let the developers deploy network apps as well as services and make them available for one and all. Cloud Foundry handle more traffic without compromising with the app speed.

4. What are the platforms that are used for the large scale Cloud Foundry?
Answer: There are two common platforms that are considered when it comes to large scale Cloud Foundry and they are MapReduce and Apache Hadoop. Both of them are compatible and best in doing their task.

5. How it is possible for users to gain from utility computing?
Answer: Well, the fact is Utility computing enables the users to pay as per the usage and nothing else. An organization can consider it as a plug-in that generally manages and decides the type of service which needs to be displayed from the cloud. Thus users can gain from it simply. (E learning portal)

6. What is the difference between IaaS vs PaaS?
Answer: PaaS, or solution stack, offers a more comprehensive approach to the cost-effective application deployment need of today’s developers. This service provides the necessary hardware architecture and software framework needed to put an application into service, without having to own, manage and upkeep all the required resources.
IaaS, in comparison to the PaaS, provides equipment for operations, networking, data storage and hardware with the use of the internet, so that the subscriber is no longer confronted with location and purchase cost

7. How the Cloud Foundry apps run anywhere?
Answer: There are two virtual machines that cloud foundry designates and they are VM for the infrastructure of the platform and the second is VM for hosting apps for the outside world. There is an auction algorithm through which the Diego system simply assign hosted app load to all the virtual machines of the host. It keeps it running and simply ensures balance with the help of demand surges and outages.

8. Before proceeding with Cloud Foundry, is there any essential things that are being paid attention to?
Although Cloud Foundry is a secure platform, there are certain things that one must consider and they are:
1. Uptime
2. Loss of Data
3. Business continuity
4. Compliance
4. Data integrity
5. Data Storage
6. Compatibility issues

9. What is Cloud Foundry BuildPack?
Answer: Buildpacks provide framework and runtime support for apps. Buildpacks typically examine your apps to determine what dependencies to download and how to configure the apps to communicate with bound services. When you push an app, Cloud Foundry automatically detects an appropriate buildpack for it. This buildpack is used to compile or prepare your app for launch.

10. Is there any difference between scalability and elasticity in Cloud Foundry?
Answer: a Scalability is an approach in Cloud Foundry with the help of which blooming workload can be handled by growing in magnitude the supply of resource capacity. On the other side, elasticity reflects the notion of assigning and eliminating resource capacity on a large amount. Both Scalability and Elasticity are required to derive the best results. Also, both these can be considered as the characteristics of Cloud Foundry.

11. How will my organization benefit from providing Certification to its employees?
Answer: Our suite of training and certification products can help your organization transform, quickly bringing your developer population up-to-speed with the skill sets required to tackle your digital transformation needs. Additionally, Certification is an excellent way to verify that candidates you are considering hiring have the practical experience necessary to be productive working with Cloud Foundry.

12. How is Cloud Foundry Certification different from what other organizations offer in terms of certifying computer technology skills?
Answer: Both our Training and Certification are specifically focused on developers building applications on top of the Cloud Foundry platform.

13. Mention About The Top Cloud Applications Now A Days?
Answer: Top cloud computing applications include google docs which are very fast and secure. There is also a mobile version of google docs so you can access your data from a smartphone. Pixlr and Phoenix, gay cut also are the applications used for cloud computing.

14. Comment On Cloud Computing Revolution?
Answer: It’s essential to understand that the cloud computing revolution is not just about doing old things in new ways, also it is not just more cheap and green but also more collaborative intelligent and better available. The opportunity for Information technology department is to achieve new things and to make new things possible by cloud computing.

15. Explain The Importance Of Cloud Computing In It?
Answer: cloud computing addresses the explosive growth of internet-connected devices, and complements the increasing presence of technology in today’s world. Cloud computing provides superior user experience, is massively scalable, and is characterized by the internet-driven economics.

16. Describe Cloud Computing As Concisely And Simply As Possible In Layman Language? Answer: The purest form of cloud computing is pay-as-you-go Info Tech, online and on-demand as per needed. The Info Technology capabilities provided as a service to businesses includes single software applications and the software suites.

17. What Are The Different Layers Of Cloud Computing?
Cloud computing consists of 3 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows:
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed, etc.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides a cloud application platform for the developers.
Software as a Service (SaaS) provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anything on the system.
The application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only.

18. What Are The Three Cost Factors Involves In Cloud Data Center?
Answer: Cloud data center doesn’t require experts to operate it, but it requires skilled people to see the maintenance, maintain the workloads and to keep the track of the traffic. The labor cost is 6% of the total cost to operate the cloud data center. Power distribution and cooling of the datacenter cost 20% of the total cost. Computing cost is at the end and is the highest as it is where lots of resources and installation has to be done. It costs the maximum left percentage. 

19. What Does A Vpn Consists Of?
VPN is known as a virtual private network and it consists of two important things:
1. Firewall: it acts as a barrier between the public network and any private network. It filters the messages that are getting exchanged between the networks. It also protects from any malicious activity being done on the network.
2. Encryption: it is used to protect the sensitive data from professional hackers and other spammers who usually remain active to get the data. With a message always there will be a key with which you can match the key provided to you.

20. Is Cloud computing an application?
Answer: The Cloud Computing is not an application but it is a methodology that deploys the application in a custom fashion on a server. It can be also learned as an advance model of client-server architecture that is highly flexible, scalable and configurable. This architecture leverages high performance out of machines with quite an ease of management.

21. What are the different data types used in cloud computing?
Answer: Cloud computing is going all together for a different look as it now includes different data types like emails, contacts, images, blogs, etc. The amount of data increasing day by day and cloud computing is requiring new and efficient data types to store them. For example, if you want to save video then you need a data type to save that. Latency requirements are increasing as the demand is increasing. Companies are going for lower latency for many applications.

22. What are the different service models for cloud computing?
Answer: There are different kinds of cloud service model below are three major models, a different business using some or all of these models as per the requirement:

1.Software as a Service (Saas):
SaaS model provides a software application and programs service to the end-user, all application and program are managed cloud-based.
2.Platform as a Service (PaaS):
PaaS model provides an environment, platform, and operating system layer via the internet to a developer so that they can develop application and services.
3.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):
IaaS is fundamental service of cloud computing, it provides infrastructure to access the computing resources in a virtualized environment on the internet.

23. How can a company benefit from cloud computing?
There are many advantages of cloud computing for any organization below are some of the benefits of cloud computing
Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users
More secure data backup
Data storage (Relational, No-SQL, Block Storage)
Increased productivity
Sandboxing and virtualization capabilities
Increased productivity
Better for growth and scalability
Take advantage of powerful server capabilities without hardware investment. 

24. What do you understand by CaaS?
Answer: CaaS is a terminology given in the telecom industry as Communication as a Service. The Voice-over-Ip (VoIP) follows the same delivery model. CaaS can offer enterprise user features such as desktop call control, presence, unified messaging, and desktop faxing. In addition to the enterprise features, CaaS also has a set of services for contact center automation that includes IVR, ACD, call recording, multimedia routing (e-mail and text chat), and screen pop integration.

25. Explain hybrid and community cloud?
Answer: Hybrid cloud: It consists of multiple service providers. It is a combination of public and private cloud features. It is used by the company when they require both private and public clouds.
Community Cloud: This model is quite expensive and is used when the organizations having common goals and requirements, and are ready to share the benefits of the cloud service.

26. How is Cloud Computing different from primitive Client-Server Architecture?
Answer: The primitive Client-Server architecture is a one-to-one communication between only two physical machines namely Client machine and Server machine (datacenter). Whereas cloud computing, infrastructure is similar to the client-side but varies at server-side.

The server-side contains the main Cloud Controller that forwards the request to its worker machines known as Nodes. These nodes are grid computing machines that dedicate all its resources to process application. These nodes are maintained in clusters. So a cloud computing infrastructure is quite complicated on the server-side that processes all the requests from clients and sends the result back. 

27. What is the use of API in cloud services?
Answer: API stands for Application programming interface is very useful in cloud platforms as it allows easy implementation of it on the system. It removes the need to write full-fledged programs. It provides the instructions to make the communication between one or more applications. It also allows easy to create an application with ease and link the cloud services with other systems.

28. What are the characteristics on which a Cloud Computing Model should be selected for implementing and managing the workload?
Answer: Scalability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. It allows the architecture to provide on-demand resources if the requirement is being raised by the traffic. Whereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of a large amount of resource capacity dynamically. It is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

29. Why should one prefer public cloud over the private cloud?
Answer: cloud technology is the best example of sustainable technology that utilizes all the computing resources. If a person needs to set up a quick business and wants to host its website, he need not require to set up a full-fledged private cloud. Rather he should go for public cloud hosting that provides different pay-per-use subscriptions, which could actually result in being economical. There are numbers of vendors that provide such services like godaddy.com etc.

30. What Are Main Features Of Cloud Services?
Some important features of the cloud service are given as follows:
Accessing and managing commercial software.
Centralizing the activities of management of software in the Web environment.
Developing applications that are capable of managing several clients.
Centralizing the updating feature of software that eliminates the need for downloading the upgrades.

31. What is a role-based access control (RBAC) system in CF?
Answer: CF uses a role-based access control (RBAC) system to grant Cloud Foundry users permissions appropriate to their role within an org or space.

32. What is SSH Daemon?
Answer: The SSH daemon is a lightweight implementation that is built around the Go SSH library. It supports command execution, interactive shells, local port forwarding, and secure copy. The daemon is self-contained and has no dependencies on the container root file system.

33. What is Metrics Collector?
Answer: The metrics collector gathers metrics and statistics from the components. Operators can use this information to monitor a Cloud Foundry deployment.

34. How the sync, BBS, and Cell Rep components work together?
Answer: Nsync receives a message from the Cloud Controller when the user scales an app. It writes the number of instances into a DesiredLRP structure in the Diego BBS database.
BBS uses its convergence process to monitor the DesiredLRP and ActualLRP values. It launches or kills application instances as appropriate to ensure the ActualLRP count matches the DesiredLRP count.
Cell Rep monitors the containers and provides the ActualLRP value.

35. What is Pivotal Cloud Foundry (PCF)?
Answer: A commercial version called Pivotal Cloud Foundry (PCF) is available from Pivotal. It provides extra tools for installation and administration not included in the open software product.

36. What are the building blocks in cloud architecture?

  • Reference architecture
  • Technical architecture
  • Deployment operation architecture
  • Reference architecture
  • Technical architecture
  • Deployment operation architecture

37. What resources are provided by infrastructure as a service?
Answer: Infrastructure as a Service provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. Infrastructure deals with the complexities of maintaining and deploying the services provided by this layer. The infrastructure here is the servers, storage, and other hardware systems.

38. What Is The Difference Between Traditional Datacenters And Cloud?
Answer: Cloud computing uses the concept of the data center as it is the data center is based on the tradition one so the difference between them is as follows:
Cost of the traditional data center is higher, due to heating issues and other hardware/software related issues but this is not the case with the cloud computing infrastructure.
It gets scaled when the demand increases. Most of the cost is being spent on the maintenance being performed on the datacenters, whereas cloud platform requires minimum maintenance and not very expert hand to handle them.

39. What Are The Security Laws Which Take Care Of The Data In The Cloud?
The security laws which are implements to secure data in the cloud are as follows:
Input validation: controls the input data which is being to any system.
Processing: control that the data is being processed correctly and completely in an application.
File: control the data being manipulated in any type of file.
Output reconciliation: control the data that has to be reconciled from input to output.
Backup and recovery: control the security breaches logs and the problems which has occurred while creating the back.

40. What are the different deployment models?
Cloud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows:
Private Cloud: Organizations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it. It is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organization or an industry. More organizations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. Virtual private cloud is being used that operate by a hosting company.
Public Cloud: These are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. For example, google, amazon, etc. They focus on a few layers like cloud application, an infrastructure providing and providing platform markets.
Hybrid Clouds: It is the combination of public and private cloud. It is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds. It allows organizations to create their own cloud and allow them to give control over to someone else as well.

41. What are some security measures provided by a cloud?
Answer: Security in the cloud is the major concerned for the organization as data should be stored in encrypted form.

There are many levels of security within the cloud environment such as:
1.Identity Management:
Identity management control access information, computing resources, application and services to be used by an authorized user only.
2. Access Control:
As data can be accessed by anywhere in cloud permission need to provide to the user to control the access to other users to enter into a cloud.
3. Authorization and Authentication:
As data is in cloud provision is made to allocate access to certain individuals (authorized user) only to change the application and data.

42. In cloud what are the optimizing strategies?
Answer: To overcome the maintenance cost and to optimize the resources, there is a concept of three data center in the cloud which provides recovery and back-up in case of disaster or system failure and keeps all the data safe and intact.

43. Name the platforms which are used for large-scale cloud computing?
Answer: Cloud provides many platforms for cloud computing but as the emergence of the big data cloud needed large-scale distributed computing the platform are as follows:
1. Apache Hadoop: Apache Hadoop is an open source technology, it uses Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) for storage and distributed processing of very large datasets multi-node computer cluster which are built using commodity hardware with high scalability. Hadoop provides services like data storage, data processing, data access, data governance, security, and operations.
2. MapReduce: MapReduce is a framework used for processing of large-scale data generated in structure, unstructured or semi-structured format. MapReduce uses cloud sources and commodity hardware to process data and by replicating same data three (default replication factor = 3) times it provides fault tolerance and scalability at a software level.

44. Why Does An Organization Need To Manage The Workloads?
Answer: The workload can be defined as an independent service or a set of code that can be executed. It can be everything from a data-intensive workload to storage or a transaction processing workload and does not rely upon the outside elements. The workload can be considered as a small or complete application.
The organization manages workloads because of the following reasons:
To know how their applications are running.
To know what functions they are performing.
To know the charges of the individual department according to the use of the service.

45. How Can These Concerns Be Addressed?
Answer: By offering a more expensive – private cloud – solution, a customer’s data is isolated from the public. Virtual private clouds can also be implemented. Lastly, the poorest measure against security is client-partitioning in a public cloud.

46. Explain Benefits Of Cloud Computing?
Answer: Money-saving, increase in productivity of about 50% , IT support is 40% and time-saving about 30%, less power, and less space.

47. Why Professional Clouds Are Required In Cloud Computing?
Answer: Professional clouds are used in Cloud computing because professional clouds are used for Emails, CRM solutions, and web sites, etc.

48. Cloud Computing Can Save Money? Explain?
Answer: We don’t need to buy the cloud and that is the biggest benefit for bottom line-conscious business offices and Information technology departments. Like any other common utility, we just pay for what we use and when we use we turn it off. It always costs less to take advantage of existing infrastructure rather than building our own from scratch and that too especially for short term projects.

49. Tell Your Opinion About Adoption Of Cloud By Operators Around The World?
Answer: Many operators use it today while cloud may not be seeing the traction of some forms of technology, like 4G.

50. How Important Is Platform As A Service?
Answer: Platform as a Service is an important layer in cloud architecture. It is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage, and network. This layer includes organizing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. It is also responsible to provide complete virtualization of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world.

51. What Are The Different Datacenters Deployed For This?
Answer: Cloud computing is made up of various datacenters put together in a grid form. It consists of different datacenters like:
Containerized Datacenters
These are the traditional datacenters that allow a high level of customization with servers, mainframe, and other resources. It requires planning, cooling, networking, and power to access and work.
Low-Density Datacenters
These data centers are optimized to give high performance. In these datacenters, the space constraint is being removed and there is an increased density. It has a drawback that with high density the heat issue also creeps in. These datacenters are very much suitable to develop cloud infrastructure. 

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