1. What exactly do you know about the SAP BW?
It is actually a data warehouse application that has some of the tremendous features in it. The fact is every business needs to maintain the data in the most reliable manner and this is one of the best available tools to enable businesses for the same. It can simply help organizations in data reporting, formatting, analysis, as well as in important decision making. Data can also be accessed easily from all the SAP applications and in case the need felt, from other business as well.
2. Can you create data storage area in the SAP BW?
Yes, this is possible and generally it is called as Infocube. There are generally two tables which are present in it and they are called as Dimensional Table and the Fact Table.
3. Can you tell something about the Multi-provider in the SAP and how it is useful for the users?
It is basically an info-provider that consists of data from the info-providers used for other tasks. One of the main aims of this is to make sure that data remain available reliably for the reporting purpose. Some of the things that make it useful for the users are:
1. The source of data is from the Info providers that are dedicated to a specific task.
2. They themselves doesn’t contain any sort of data present in them
3. There are basic union operators which make sure that the Info-providers remains connected to one another
4. They are useful in assuring effective reporting and make sure they can be run anytime for testing or any other purpose.
4. What is proposed from statistics for aggregates?
Answer: You can ask the system to get the optimal characteristics for aggregation by using the BW statistics data (like query run time, etc).
5. How extended Star schema is different from Star schema?
In Extended Star schema one fact table can connect to 16 dimensions tables and each dimension table is assigned with 248 maximum SID tables. SID tables are also called Characteristics and each characteristic can have master data tables like ATTR, Text, etc.
In Star Schema, Each Dimension is joined to one single Fact table. Each Dimension is represented by only one dimension and is not further normalized.
Dimension Table contains set of attribute that are used to analyze the data.
6. What is the use of InfoCube in BW system?
InfoCube is defined as multidimensional dataset which is used for analysis in a BEx query. An InfoCube consists of set of relational tables which are logically joined to implement star schema. A Fact table in star schema is joined with multiple dimension tables.
You can add data from one or more InfoSource or InfoProviders to an InfoCube. They are available as InfoProviders for analysis and reporting purposes.
7. What are the conversion routines for units and currencies in the update rule?
Time dimensions are automatically converted; ex: if the cube contains calendar month and your transfer structure contains date, the date to calendar month is converted automatically. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
8. What are the data loading tuning one can do?
- Watch the ABAP code in transfer and update rules;
- Load balance on different servers
- Indexes on source tables
- Use fixed length files if u load data from flat files and put the
- file on the application server.
- Use content extractor
- Use PSA and data target in parallel option in the info package
- Start several info packagers parallel with different selection options
- Buffer the SID number ranges if u load lot of data at once
Load master data before loading transaction data.
9. What are the data target administration tasks?
Delete index, generate index, construct database statistics, initial fill of new aggregates, roll up of filled aggregates, compression of the InfoCube, activate ODS, complete deletion of data target.
10. How we do the SD and MM configuration for BW?
You need to activate the data sources in R3 system.You need to maintain the login information for the logical system.sm59 : Choose the RFC destination , BW system, Under logon Security, maintain the usercredentials.Maintain control parameters for data transfer.Filling in of setup tables SBIWI feel that these are certain prerequisites.From an SD perspective, you as a BW consultant should first understand the basic SD process flow on the R3 side. (search the forum for SD process flow andyou’ll get a wealth of information on the flow and the tables as well as transactions involved in SD).Next you need to understand the process flow that has been implemented at the clients place. How the SD data flows and what are the integration points withother modules as well as how the integration happens.This knowledge is essential when modeling your BW design.From a BW perspective you need to first know all the SD extractors and what information they bring. Next look at all the cubes and ODS for SD.
11. What are the load process and processing?
The load process and processing are the Info package, Read PSA and update data target, save hierarchy, update ODS data object, data export open hub, delete overlapping requests.
12. How the dimensions are optimized?
It system can be used as many as possible for performance, for instance it may be assumed that 100 products and 200 customers; if one dimension for both, the size of the dimension will be 20000; if it was made individual dimensions then the total number of rows will be 300. Even if they are taken more than one characteristic per dimension, the math considering worst case and decide which characteristics may be combined in a dimension.
13. What is the structure of InfoCube?
An InfoCube is used to store the data physically. It consists of a number of InfoObjects that are filled with data from staging. It has the structure of a star schema.
In SAP BI, an Infocube contains Extended Star Schema as shown above.
An InfoCube consists of a fact table which is surrounded by 16 dimension tables and master data that is lying outside the cube.
14. Which are the attachments that are platform independent and become a part of the template?
There are several attachments that are part of the template form. APPSCORE: This is a kind of attachment that comprises of packages as well as procedures which are useful for all the different forms for the purpose of creating toolbars, menus etc. APPSDAYPK: This attachment contains packages that are helpful in controlling the applications associated with oracle. FNDSQF: This attachment has various procedures as well as packages for flex fields, profiles, message dictionary and also concurrent processing. CUSTOM: This attachment is helpful in extending the application forms of oracle without causing any modification related with the application code. There are various kinds of customization including zoom. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
15. Where do we use Write optimized DSO’s?
Write optimized DSO provides a temporary storage area for large sets of data if you are executing complex transformations for this data before it is written to the DataStore object. The data can then be updated to further InfoProviders. You only have to create the complex transformations once for all data.
Write-optimized DataStore objects are used as the EDW layer for saving data. Business rules are only applied when the data is updated to additional InfoProviders. (SAP BW on HANA Interview Questions The Best 2019 Latest)
16. How would you convert an info package group into a process chain?
Double Click on the info package grp, click on the ‘Process Chain Maint’ button and type in the name and description ; the individual info packages are inserted automatically. (SAP Training Online)
17. How can you navigate to see the error idocs?
If it is fine check the IDOCs in source system go to BD87->give Ur user ID and date->execute->you can find Red status Idocs select the erroneous Idoc->Rt.clickand select Manual process.You need to Reprocess this IDOC which are RED. For this you can take help of Any of your Team (ALE IDOC Team or BAsis Team)Or Elseyoucan push it manually. Just search it in bd87 screen only to Reprocess.Also, Try to find why this IDocs are stuck there.
18. What is index?
Indices/Indexes are used to locate needed records in a database table quickly. BW uses two types of indices, B-tree indices for regular database tables and bitmap indices for fact tables and aggregate tables.
19. How can a cube have partitioned for which the data already exists?
The cube cannot be partitioned if the data already exists the cube must be empty to do this, one work around is to make a copy of the cube A to cube B, export data from A to B using export data source, empty cube A, create partition on A, re-import data from B, and delete cube B.
20. How would you optimize the dimensions?
Use as many as possible for performance improvement; Ex: Assume that u have 100 products and 200 customers; if you make one dimension for both ,the size of the dimension will be 20000; if you make individual dimensions then the total number of rows will be 300. Even if you put more than one characteristic per dimension, do the math considering worst case scenario and decide which characteristics may be combined in a dimension.
21. What is the use of real time InfoCube? How do you enter data in real time InfoCubes?
Real time InfoCubes are used to support parallel write access. Real time InfoCubes are used in connection with the entry of planning data.
You can enter the data in Real time InfoCubes in two different ways −
Transaction for entering planning data.
22. What is extended Star schema? Which of the tables are inside and outside cube in an extended star schema?
In Extended Star schema, Fact tables are connected to Dimension tables and dimension table is connected to SID table and SID table is connected to master data tables. In Extended star schema you have Fact and Dimension tables are inside the cube however SID tables are outside cube. When you load the transactional data into Info cube, Dim Id’s are generated based on SID’s and these Dim id’s are used in fact tables. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
23. What is the use of Transformation and how the mapping is done in BW?
Transformation process is used to perform data consolidation, cleansing and data integration. When data is loaded from one BI object to other BI object, transformation is applied on the data. Transformation is used to convert a field of source into the target object format.
Transformation rules −
Transformation rules are used to map source fields and target fields. Different rule types can be used for transformation.
24. What is a structure?
Combination of characteristics and key figures; for example you can create a structure containing sales for products A, B and C as three different restricted key figure contained in a structure; if this is global you can reuse it in other queries.
25. What is a calculated key figure?
To do complicated calculations on key figures such as mathematics functions, percentage functions etc. For example you can have a calculated key figure to find out sales tax from sale price.
26. Can you tell something about the Data Ware-house Hierarchy?
It is basically an approach that is considered when it comes to defining the data aggregation. Basically, it’s a logical structure and the best thing is the users are free to consider it for the purpose of data organization. The common example of this approach is the time dimension hierarchy.
27. What is Dashboard in SAP BW and how it is created?
It is basically a collection of views, groups, as well as reports. It can also be considered as the graphical reporting interface. It is possible to create the same with the help of a Web Application Designer. The entire content can be displayed on a screen quickly.
28. What is a reusable structure?
These are query level structures which can be used in any queries.
29. What is the use of Infoarea in SAP BW system?
Info Area in SAP BI are used to group similar types of object together. Info Area are used to manage Info Cubes and Info Objects. Each Info Objects resides in an Info Area and you can define it a folder which is used to hold similar files together.
30. which Data store object is used?
DataStore object for direct update allows you to access data for reporting and analysis immediately after it is loaded. It is different from standard DSO’s in the way how it processed the data. Data is stored in same format in which it was loaded to DataStore object for direct update by the application. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
31. How do I separate development from production environment?
Depending on requirements for the availability of the application, the size of the user population and other factors you can decide how to divide the development environment from the production environment. For certain applications, it is acceptable to combine the development server with the deployment server, as long as the end users understand that sometimes the application is not available. Other applications may require two (development and production) or even three (development, test and production) servers. In Application Express applications can be moved from environment to environment using an export and import facility for application definitions. With one server available to run the database and Application Express, you can still separate the development version of an application from its production version by using two workspaces accessing separate schemas. In this case one workspace will be used by developers and the other will be the workspace in which the application is deployed in production.
32. When to Virtual Providers based on DTP?
When only some amount of data is used.
You need to access up to date data from a SAP source system.
Only few users executes queries simultaneously on the database.
33. Explain the architecture of SAP BW system and its components?
Process designer and other functions.
Business Explorer BEx is reporting and analysis tool that support query, analysis and reporting functions in BI. Using BEx, you can analyze historical and current data to different degree of analysis.
34. How does change run affect aggregate?
Newly loaded master data is not active until the change run has been applied to hierarchy.
35. What do you mean by the term Rollup in the SAP BW?
Generally, this approach is considered when it comes to packing the new data packages in the Info-cubes. This is generally done because the entire data in the Infocube doesn’t remains available during the reporting processes.
36. Name two types of Multiproviders and compare them to each other?
These are Homogenous and Heterogeneous. In homogenous, there are info-providers which are similar to one another in terms of all their technical specifications and other technical details. They can also have similar key figures and the characteristics.
On the other side Heterogeneous are the ones which are ones which have only a limited number of identical characters as well as the key figures. It can be used for the modeling while the homogenous cannot be considered for this task. All the scenarios can easily be divided into the sub-categories and have their own dedicated info-provider. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
37. Is it possible for the users to convert the package group into a Process Chain? If so, how?
Yes, this can be done easily. For this, the user has to first make a double click on the group defining the info. Next is to open the Process Chain Management option from it. After this, the users have to type the name and the description post which the task is done automatically.
38. What exactly do you know about the term Data Flow in the Business Intelligence or Business Warehouse?
It defines the path adopted by the data and how it reaches from one specific location to another in a domain or in a warehouse. There are various rules and regulations that govern the control over the same. Generally the flow is from a transactional to an analytical system.
39. What is Process chain and when you can use the same in the Data Warehouse?
It is basically an approach that is useful when it comes to automating the loading process of the date. Several important processes such as Indices, Data Load, as well as the deletion can be automated provided some basic conditions are met and the best thing is the users doesn’t have a lot of concern with the type of data you generally make use of.
40. Can you name a few important tasks which are essential in the data warehousing and management of same?
Collection integration, as well as management of the data and the concerned tasks
Making effective plans and analyzing the situations with the help of data stored
Next important task is reporting. There are many tools in SAP BW application that are useful in this matter and enable user to keep up the pace even when the data is present on the browser or in the excel.
Next important module is to assure broad cast publishing
Making sure of security is the next big thing as privacy always matters for any businesses when it comes to dealing with the data whether structured or unstructured
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41. What is Geographical Information in the SAP BW and for what purpose it is used commonly?
Geographical Information generally consists of information related to a customer, origin, region of the sales, transaction history and a lot more. It can be accessed through a geographical system, named as BEx.
42. What is process chain and how you used it?
Process chains are tool available in BW for Automation of upload of master data and transaction data while taking care of dependency between each processes.
In one of our scenario we wanted to upload wholesale price infoobject which will have wholesale price for all the material. Then we wanted to load transaction data. While loading transaction data to populate wholesale price, there was a look up in the update rule on this InfoObject masterdata table. This dependency of first uploading masterdata and then uploading transaction data was done through the process chain. (SAP BW Interview Questions)
43. What is the function of ‘reconstruction’ tab in an infocube?
It reconstructs the deleted requests from the infocube. If a request has been deleted and later someone wants the data records of that request to be added to the infocube, one can use the reconstruction tab to add those records. It goes to the PSA and brings the data to the infocube.
44. What is open hub service?
The open hub service enables you to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external data marts, analytical applications, and other applications. With this, you can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for the export of data is the Infospoke. Using this, you can define the object from which the data comes and into which target it is transferred. Through the open hub service, SAP BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.
45. What are extractors? Name a few which are used commonly in the SAP BW?
Many times there is a need to extract the data from the system programmer. This task generally needs a lot of time and efforts too. With the help of an extractor, it can be accomplished very easily and in a proper time frame. The users are free to consider them in the SAP Business Warehouse easily. A few which are used commonly are as under:
1. Customer Generated Extractors
2. Application Specific Attractors
3. Cross Application Extractors
46. Compare Infocubes with Operational Data Store?
The level of data in the ODS is very high and every single detailed about the same can be grabbed easily. On the other side, not many details are present in the Infocubes about the data.
It is possible to control the ODS with a key whereas the same is not possible in case of an Infocube
ODS is a flat structure but Infocube is a 16 dimensional approach
Under a Cube, there can be multiple ODS. Generally, it can be said that Infocube can have data which is derived generally from the ODS.
47. What exactly do you know about the Business Warehouse statistics?
There are a number of cubes present in the SAP and they are considered for the purpose of measuring the performance of data loading and query handling. All the data in the Warehouse can be shown or can be displayed with the help of this approach. Generally, it keeps an eye on the overall time queries take to accomplish a task or how quick they are responded.
48. What is compression in the Data Warehouse?
It is basically a procedure that is considered for the purpose of eliminating the additional ID’s. Its main aim is to make sure that the maximum space remains available on the warehouse so that maximum amount of data can be stored. Compression is basically a useful approach with the help of which the users can make sure that no duplicate or unused ID’s exists in the warehouse environment which can sometime slow down the system performance.
49. How do perform real time data acquisition in BW system?
Real time data acquisition is based on moving data to Business Warehouse in real time. Data is sent to delta queue or PSA table in real time.
Real time data acquisition can be achieved in two scenarios −
By using InfoPackage for real time data acquisition using Service API.
Using Web Service to load data to Persistent Storage Area PSA and then by using real time DTP to move the data to DSO.
Real time Data Acquisition Background Process −
To process data to InfoPackage and data transfer process DTP at regular intervals, you can use a background process known as Daemon.
Daemon process gets all the information from InfoPackage and DTP that which data is to be transferred and which PSA and Data sore objects to be loaded with data.
50. Tell something you know about the dimension in the Warehouse and how it can be optimized?
Generally, the Data Warehouse has a group of reference information about any activity. The same is considered as a dimension in the warehouse. For optimization, the users have to make sure that there are no dynamic characters remains present in the dimension and there should also be a strict upper limit on the size of the same.
51. What is generally included in the Data Target Administrative task?
All the information regarding the database statics, Indexes, Info-cube comparison, Deleting the data target, as well as maintenance can be located in the Data target Administrative Task.