SAP Hana Development Interview Questions

01. What is SAP HANA?
HANA stands for High-performance Analytical Application and is one of the best available tools for database management. It can directly be linked to ERP systems. It is possible for the users to consider the frontend modeling for the replication center in this approach. In addition to this, it is one of the best available tools for load control and management in the server.

02. What do you mean by SAP HANA?
Answer: HANA stands for High-performance Analytical Application and is one of the best available tools for database management. It can directly be linked to ERP systems. It is possible for the users to consider the frontend modeling for the replication center in this approach. In addition to this, it is one of the best available tools for load control and management in the server.

03. What are the benefits that SQL can bring for you?
 If the queries in the SQL are simple, the users are free to retrieve a very large sum of data very easily from the system. Another good thing about SQL is it is very easy to learn and implement. There is vast support available for SQL and all the queries can be addressed reliably. Using SQL, the database can be managed very easily and in fact without considering a large amount of coding. 04. What exactly is the significance of Persistence Layer in SAP HANA?

Answer: It is actually an important later in SAP HANA which plays a very important role. Actually, HANA has a computing engine built inside and the users have to utilize the data directly without taking any backup. The same can create an issue during powerful failure and thus it is necessary to keep a backup of the same. This layer comes as a savior and it makes sure no loss of data during such a situation. (E learning Portal)

05. Explain the column and Row store in HANA?
Answer: HANA supports both types of data store in the database. Row store is used when you need to use Select statement and no aggregations are performed.

Column store is used to perform aggregations and HANA Modeling is supported only on Column based tables.

06. What is the use of SAP HANA studio?
Answer: HANA studio is an eclipsed based tool and provides support for development and administration in the HANA system. You can perform HANA Modeling on the top of tables in the database, Data provisioning, HANA Administration and various other activities using HANA studio.

SAP HANA Studio client is available for Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 for 32 bit and 64-bit operating system.

What do you understand by SAP HANA In-Memory Computing Engine IMCE?
In-Memory concept of SAP HANA means that all the data is stored in RAM memory. A conventional database transfer data from memory in 5 milliseconds, however, SAP HANA In-memory takes 5 nanoseconds to read data.

SAP HANA uses multicore CPU architecture and stores data in row and column-based storage in the HANA database.

07. What is SAP HANA Analytic Privileges?
Answer: Analytic Privileges are used to limit access to HANA Information views. You can assign different types of right to different users on a different component of a View in Analytic Privileges.

If you want that your Area Managers can only see data from their region and you want to assign this restriction for a specific duration, how this can be achieved. Using Analytic Privileges, you can add Region attribute and values to Attribute Restrictions and Time duration is defined in Privilege validity.

Analytic Privilege can be added to the user profile in User and Roles under the Security tab. 

08. How you can perform trace, monitoring, error and performance monitoring of jobs in Data Services?
Answer: Replication job can be performed in the Data Services Management Console. You have to go to the status tab and select the repository where the job is created → Batch Job Status.

There you can find different tabs- Trace, Monitor, Error and Performance Monitor.

09. What system privilege is required for a user to enable him to create user and roles in HANA studio?
Answer: Only database users with the system privilege ROLE ADMIN are allowed to create users and roles in HANA studio.

10. List advantages of column-based tables?

  • Allows smoother parallel processing of data as the data in columns is stored vertically. Thus, to access data from multiple columns, every operation can be allocated to a separate processor core.
  • Only specific columns need to be approached for Select query and any column can be used for indexing.
  • Efficient operations since most columns hold unique values and thus, high compression rate.

11. How to perform backup and recovery operations?
Answer: During regular operation, data is by default stored to the disk at savepoints in SAP HANA. As soon a there is any update and transaction, logs become active and get saved from the disk memory. In case of power failure, the database restarts like any other DB returning to the last savepoint log state. SAP HANA requires backup to protect against disk failure and reset DB to the previous state. The backups simultaneously as the users keep performing their tasks.

12. What happens to my data when I shut down the SAP HANA One instance?
Answer: The SAP HANA One instances are backed up by persistent data stores and volumes and will remain attached until the user terminates the instance. Once the instance is terminated, by default, only the root volume is deleted. The data, log, and backup volumes are not deleted automatically. Those volumes can be attached to other instances if required. If the instance is not needed anymore, make sure to delete all the EBS volumes to avoid storage charges for unused EBS volumes. 

13. What Are The Different Sap BusinessObjects Reporting And Dashboard?

  • Web Intelligence
  • Dashboard Designer (Earlier known as XCelsius)
  • Universe Designer (For Semantic Layer)
  • SAP Crystal Reports
  • SAP Lumira
  • SAP Design Studio
  • BusinessObjects Explorer
  • Analysis for OLAP

14. What Are The Different Input Parameters Types In Sap Hana?
Answer: Direct: Using this parameter type, you can pass any value for the parameter.

Column: This parameter type allows you to select any value from the list of distinct values available in a column in HANA view.

Derived From Table: It is also possible to create dynamic values in a table. This allows you to select any of the available values from the list.

Static List: It is also possible to create a static list of values and provide user input during execution.

15. Which Bo Tools Can Connect To Hana System Using A Universe?
Answer: All BusinessObjects tool – Web, Dashboard Designer, Lumira, Crystal Reports, Design Studio that provide Universe connectivity as a data source can be used to connect to the HANA system.

16. In BusinessObjects 4.2, What Are The Different Ways To Connect Web To Hana Views?

  • Using Universe on top of HANA Modeling views
  • Direct Web connection with HANA Modeling views
  • SAP HANA Online connectivity
  • Using Free-Hand SQL

17. What Are The Advantages Of Using Sap Hana Db Over Other Traditional Database For Bi Reporting?
Answer:  SAP HANA in-memory concept: SAP HANA in-memory database services provide the capability of processing high-speed transactions and analytics. It helps in managing large database volumes using multitenant database containers and dynamic tiering across multi-tier storage.

Analytics Processing: Using HANA in-memory processing capability – text, predictive, spatial, graph, streaming, and time-series – you can get answers to any business question and make smart decisions in real-time.

App Development: Using SAP HANA, you can develop next-generation applications that combine analytics and transactions, and deploy them on any device.

Data Access: SAP HANA helps organizations in getting an accurate and complete view of the business by accessing data from different sources. HANA provides real-time data replication and data quality to improve decision making from internal and external data sources.

Administration: SAP HANA ensures application availability and tools to monitor the processes along with data and application security.

Security: SAP HANA provides a dashboard to monitor all KPIs related to security. It helps in keeping communications, data storage, and application services secure with robust identity and access management controls.

18. How Do You Connect Dashboard Designer To Hana Database For Dashboard Creation?
Answer: You can connect to SAP HANA using Universe connectivity from the Dashboard. SAP Dashboard supports SAP HANA backed with Universe created on top of HANA views and tables. You can consume Universe Designer .unx files using the Query Browser option to develop the dashboard.

19. Tell something about the type of relationships in the database?

They are:

1. One to one
2. One to many
3. Many to many

The One to One is that approach in which one table is directly associated with the other tables which are similar in terms of their column. The records can be the same or they cannot be same in this approach. In the middle approach (One to many) one table is directly associated with another table and that has key relation outside the database. In the last approach, every single record in the tables can relate multiple number or records which are present in another table.

20. What exactly is Data Definition Language?
Answer: These are the commands in SQL which are responsible for defining the structure in which data remains present. Generally, all the changes made to the data are saved automatically and the users don’t have anything to worry about the same.

21. What is Functional Dependency in the database?
Answer: It is a situation when one attribute defines another and is not under similar control.

22. Define Database Management System in your own way?
Answer: A Database Management system is basically an array of programs with applications with the help of which the users are free to organize the information, retrieve the same, restore and maintain data efficiency in a positive manner.

23. Do you know something about Data dependence and its types?
Answer: It is nothing but actually the ability to change the related schema definition at a level in such a manner that all future levels don’t have an impact on the same.

24. What problems can unnecessary information can cause in the SAP HANA and how you can avoid the same from being stored in the application?
Answer: Many times the users have to deal with the information that is not relevant with any task. Generally, it can cause slow data processing speeds and can affect accuracy and reliability up to a high extent. The users are free to temporary stop the replication and this can avoid the problem of storing any unwanted information or data in the system. To disable replication temporarily, the users just have to stop the schema related jobs in the system.

25. What are the various tasks in the SAP HANA which are performed by the Modeling Studio?
Answer: The very first task it performs is selecting the type of tables which are to be stored in the HANA. The selection of Metadata is also the responsibility of the modeling studio. All the data services for entering the data from the warehouse or other location are handled by it. It simply manages the ERP instances connections. The entire data services can be used for modeling only through the modeling studio. Any sort of another modeling in the SAP HANA itself is handled by the studio. Moreover, the tasks associated with the encoding are also managed and controlled by the modeling studio.

26. Do you have any idea about the transformation rules?
These are basically the rules which are responsible for managing the source table. All the tasks that are performed on the table depend largely on these set of rules and regulations. A few of these rules are also applicable while handing some replication processes.

27. Can you tell some important benefits that users can have from the SLT Replication in SAP HANA?
Answer: It is basically an approach that has been categorized as triggered one i.e. users need not worry about the overall impact of performance on the source system. The users can simply make sure of filtering, as well as the transformation of the data even if the size is bulky. In addition to this, real-time data replication can also be assured by the users. It is possible for the users to simply make sure of multiple source systems to only one system based on HANA. The reverse action is also possible.

28. Tell the procedure of how the SQL statement is processed?
Answer: The statement is implemented with a reference to the concerned transaction. Each transaction needs the user, to begin with, a new session. This can sometimes consume time but it is beneficial in the long run.

29. Why DML compiler is significant according to you in a database management system?
Answer: The DML compiler is the one which is responsible for translations of DML statements into a language which is easy to understand by the Query Evaluation engine. It simply makes sure of no occurrence of errors in database management.

30. If I can run NetWeaver BW on IMDB/HANA, why can’t I run the Business Suite/ERP 6.0?
Answer: Just on the grounds that it’s not developed enough yet to bolster business basic applications. From an innovation viewpoint, it is as of now conceivable to maintain the Business Suite on IMDB and SAP has trialed moving some vast databases into IMDB as of now.

31. How do I separate development from production environment?
Answer: Depending on requirements for the availability of the application, the size of the user population and other factors you can decide how to divide the development environment from the production environment. For certain applications, it is acceptable to combine the development server with the deployment server, as long as the end users understand that sometimes the application is not available. Other applications may require two (development and production) or even three (development, test, and production) servers. In Application Express applications can be moved from environment to environment using an export and import facility for application definitions. With one server available to run the database and Application Express, you can still separate the development version of an application from its production version by using two workspaces accessing separate schemas. In this case, one workspace will be used by developers and the other will be the workspace in which the application is deployed in production.

32. How to Secure a sap Hana user connexion?
Answer: A Sap Hana database user is protected in the first place with a password. However, a password is very often required at the command line in order to connect and execute a batch or an SQL script. The username and password are then visible to anyone. In order to avoid that situation, it is possible to create a special key in relation to a particular user. Username and password are then invisible via the use of that key.

33. What is the use of the Persistence layer in SAP HANA system?
Answer: Persistence layer provides an inbuilt mechanism for disaster recovery in the HANA system. It ensures that the database is restored to the most recent state in case of a system failure.

Persistence layer also manages data, transaction and configuration logs and backup of these files. Backups of data and log files are performed at save points and is normally scheduled every 5-10 minutes.

34. What is the difference between Copy and derived from option while creating a new SAP HANA Attribute information view?
 Copy option allows you to copy an existing Information view and to make changes to it.

The derived option allows to create a copy of an existing view and you can’t make any changes to it.

35. What do you understand by trusted RFC connection? Which transaction is used to create and configure trusted RFC?
Answer: On your source SAP system A1 you want to set up a trusted RFC to target system B1. When it is done it would mean that when you are logged onto A1 and your user has enough Authorization in B1, you can use the RFC connection and logon to B1 without having to re-enter user and password.

36. While creating data store in Data Services for SAP ECC, what is the datastore type in the drop-down list?
Answer: You have to select SAP Applications in data store type and SAP HANA in the Database drop-down list.

37. What is a restricted user in SAP HANA system?
Answer: Restricted users are those users who access the HANA system with some applications and they don’t have SQL privileges on HANA system. When these users are created they don’t have any access initially.

If we compare restricted users with Standard users −

Restricted users can’t create objects in the HANA database or their own Schemas.

They don’t have access to view any data in the database as they don’t have generic Public role added to profile like standard users.

They can connect to the HANA database only using HTTP/HTTPS.

38. How you can configure Auditing and password policy in HANA studio?
Answer: Go to Security option in HANA system → Auditing

Password Policy
Under Global Settings→set Auditing status as enabled. You can also choose different Audit trail targets.

39. What Is The Use Of Relational Connection And An Olap Connection?
Answer: Relational Connection: A Relational connection is used to connect to the Database layer in HANA. You can connect to database objects – tables, views, and design Data Foundation layer in the Information Design Tool. You can also import tables and joins from the data source.

OLAP Connection: OLAP is a multidimensional connection that directly points to the business layer in a data model. It allows to connect to multidimensional schema directly and later, they can be used with SAP Business Objects reporting tools.

40. What Are The Different Features Of Analytic Views In Sap Hana?
Answer: Following are the properties of SAP HANA Analytic View:

Analytic Views are used to perform complex calculations and Aggregate functions such as Sum, Count, Min, Max, etc.
Analytic Views are designed to run Start schema queries.Each Analytic View has one Fact table surrounded by multiple dimension tables. Fact table contains a primary key for each Dim table and measures.
Analytic Views are similar to Info Objects and Info sets of SAP BW.
SAP BusinessObjects reporting tools can connect to Analytic view using an OLAP connection for reporting and dashboard.

41. Explain the role of the transaction manager and session?
SAP HANA transaction manager synchronizes database transactions keeping the record of closed and open transactions. When a transaction is committed or rolled back, the manager informs all the active stores and engines about the action so that they can perform required actions in time.

42. Can I just increase the memory of my traditional Oracle database to 2TB and get similar performance?
Answer: NO. You might have performance gains due to more memory available for your current Oracle/Microsoft/Teradata database but HANA is not just a database with bigger RAM.

It is a combination of a lot of hardware and software technologies. The way data is stored and processed by the In-Memory Computing Engine (IMCE) is the true differentiator. Having that data available in RAM is just the icing on the cake.

43. What Is The Use Of Sap Bi Launchpad?
Answer: BI Launchpad has the following important options :

Home: Displays the recent messages, alerts, documents, and applications that can be run.

Documents: Displays the available documents and folders, making it easier to view, organize, and manage the documents.

Any Open Document: Displays each open document.

44. What Are The Different Types Of Hana Information Views?

SAP HANA provides the following three types of Information Views:

Attribute View

  • Analytic View
  • Calculation View

45. Is It Possible To Publish Datasets From Lumira To Hana Platform?

  • setup of apex environment.
  • SSL configuration.
  • USER access.
  • security modal definition.
  • ad hoc issue and resolution.
  • patching/Performance.

46. What is the use of NVL function?
Answer: The NVL function is used for replacing NULL values with given or another value. E.g. NVL(Value, replace value)

47. Is It Possible To Expose Only A Particular Cube/Hana View To Bo Reporting Tool And Not The Entire Repository?
Answer: Yes, while creating an OLAP connection you have an option to select if you want the connection to point to a particular view or to the entire repository.

48. What is the best way to manage, operate, and monitor sap Hana systems?
Sap Hana is a young database with interesting features of SAP HANA. First of all Sap Hana is an in-memory database. It is accessible for administration via various channels. Directly from the Server, It is not the most convenient method but you can use hdbsql to manage databases. With the web-based interface Hana cockpit, you can browse and manage sap Hana environments. The Client Hana Studio is the complete tool to administer Sap Hana but it has to be physically installed and therefore is dependent on the client hardware.

49. SQL Statement that defines a foreign key constraint on column DEPT NO1 of EMP1 Table?
There are two types of permanent License keys for HANA system −

Unenforced − If unenforced license key is installed and consumption of HANA system exceeds the license amount of memory, operation of SAP HANA is not affected in this case.

Enforced − If Enforced license key is installed and the consumption of HANA system exceeds the license amount of memory, the HANA system gets locked. If this situation occurs, the HANA system has to be restarted or a new license key should be requested and installed.

While activating SAP HANA Modeling view, you get an error message −
Repository: Encountered an error in repository runtime extension; Deploy Attribute View: SQL: transaction rolled back by an internal error: insufficient privilege: Not authorized Grant SELECT privileges on schemas of the used data foundation tables to user “_SYS_REPO” GRANT SELECT ON SCHEMA “TO _SYS_REPO WITH GRANT OPTION

50. Explain the concept of Persistence Layer?
Answer: The persistence layer in SAP HANA handles all logging operations and transactions for secured backup and data restoring. This layer manages data stored in both rows and columns and provides steady savepoints. Built on the concept of persistence layer of SAP’s relational database, it ensures successful data restore.
Besides managing log data on the disk, HANA’s persistence layer allows read and write data operations via all storage interfaces.

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