ABAP Interview Questions And Answers For Experienced

1. Different Types Of Laws. What Are They?
Answer:

Two types of LUW are:

DB LUW – A database LUW is a mechanism used by the database to ensure that its data is always consistent. A database LUW is an inseparable sequence of database operations that ends with a database commit. The database LUW is either fully executed by the database system or not at all. Once a database LUW has been successfully executed, the database will be in a consistent state. If an error occurs within a database LUW, all of the database changes since the beginning of the database LUW are reversed. This leaves the database in the state it had before the transaction started.
SAP LUW – A logical unit consisting of dialog steps, whose changes are written to the database in a single database LUW is called an SAP LUW. Unlike a database LUW, an SAP LUW can span several dialog steps, and be executed using a series of different work processes.

2. How do we debug sap script?
Answer:
First, we need to put Breakpoint in Print program where ever you want to stop the execution.
After in SE71 give your form name and go to Utilities–>Active Debugger.
Then go to your transaction like VF03(for Invoice or Credit memo) etc to see the print preview or print the form execute it.
When you execute it the form Debugging will get activated and you can see your Form execution step by step.

3. What are the different types of data dictionary objects?
Answer:

Data Dictionary Objects:

  • Tables
  • Views
  • Domain
  • Data Element
  • Type Groups
  • Search Helps/Matchcode Objects
  • Lock objects
  • Structures
  • Table Types

4. Can a transparent table exist in the data dictionary but not in the database physically?
Answer: NO. TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE DICTIONARY AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE, EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA AND FIELDS.
No,
at the point, you will activate your table a same transparent table is going to be created in the database.

5. What are the domains and data elements?
Answer:
domains: domains are the dictionary objects that are assigned with constants and data types of
data elements:

data elements are dictionary objects that are assigned with the domains.
uses:’
 data elements are used to create a relationship between tables.
data elements are used to transfer the data from one R/3 to another R/3.
to create search helps.

6. Systems Fields Used For Interactive Lists And Lists?
Answer: Interactive System Fields: SY-LSIND, SY-CPAGE, SY-LILLI, SY-LISEL, SY-LISTI, SY-LSTAT, SY-STACO, SY-STARO.
Lists: SY-COLNO, SY-LINCT, SY-LINNO, SY-LINSZ, SY-PAGNO, SY-TVAR0…..SY-TVAR9, SY-WIL.

7. Logo In Sap Script?
Answer:
RSTXLDMC OR

Steps for making and inserting Logo in SAP Script:

First Procedure:
1) Draw the picture
2) Save it
3) /nSE78
4) Write name & Choose Color
5) Click on Import
6) Browse picture
7) Enter
Second Procedure:
1) /nSE71
2) Insert
3) Graphics
4) Click on stored on the document server
5) Execute
6) Choose the name of BMAP

8. What Are The Difference Between Call Screen And Leave Screen?
Answer:
Call Screen: Calling a single screen is a special case of embedding a screen sequence. If you want to prevent the called screen from covering the current screen completely, you can use the CALL SCREEN statement with the STARTING AT and ENDING AT

CALL SCREEN 1000.
CALL SCREEN 1000 STARTING AT 10 10 ENDING AT 20 20.

LEAVE SCREEN: statement ends the current screen and calls the subsequent screen. LEAVE TO SCREEN 2000.

9. How To Do Find It?
Answer: Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command. This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step. (SVR Training Online Institute)

10. How To Write A Bdc – How Do You Go About It?
Answer:
Steps for writing BDC
1) /nSE38
2) Declare Tables, Data (for ITAB) and Data (for BDCITAB)
3) Call function ‘Upload’.
4) Write code for the First Screen, Radio Button, Filename, Change Button, Second Screen, Utilities (Create Entries), Third Screen and Save.
5) Call transaction ‘SE11’ using BDCITAB mode ‘A’.
6) Save, Check Errors, Activate and Execute.

11. How Do You Move On To The Next Screen In Interactive Reporting?
Answer:
Write the code of the following:

Top-of-Page during line-selection
At line-selection

12. Create Any Functions? How To Go About It?
Answer:
Steps for creating the Functions:
First Procedure:
1) /nSE37
2) Goto
3) Function Group (FG)
4) Create a Group
5) Name of FG (ZREKHA_FG)
6) Short Text
7) Save
8) Local Object
Second Procedure:
1) Environment
2) Inactive Object
3) Function Group (ZREKHA_FG)
4) Activate
5) Back
Third Procedure:
1) Name of Function Module (ZREKHA_FM)
2) Create
3) Write FG Name (ZREKHA_FG)
4) Short Text
5) Save
Fourth Procedure:
Call function ‘ZREKHA_FM’.

13. What Are The Function Modules Used In F4 Help?
Answer:
There are two types of function modules used in F4 help:
F4IF_FIELD_VALUE_REQUEST
F4IF_INT_TABLE_VALUE_REQUEST

14. Work Most On Which Module: Name A Few Tables?
Answer:
Sales & Distribution Module

1) Sales Document: Item Data – VBAP
2) Sales Document: Partner – VBPA
3) Sales Document: Header Data – VBAK
4) Sales Document Flow – VBFA
5) Sales Document: Delivery Item Data – LIPS
6) Customer Master – KNA1
7) Material Data – MARA
8) Conditions (Transaction Data) – KONV

15. What Are The System Table Used In Abap?
Answer:
Sales Document: Item Data – VBAP
Sales Document: Partner – VBPA
Sales Document: Header Data – VBAK
Sales Document Flow – VBFA
Sales Document: Delivery Item Data – LIPS
Customer Master – KNA1
Material Data – MARA
Conditions (Transaction Data) – KONV

16. What Is Read Line In Abap?
Answer:
READ LINE and READ CURRENT LINE – These statements are used to read data from the lines of existing list levels. These statements are closely connected to the HIDE technique.

17. Can There Be More Than 1 Main Window In Sap Script?
Answer: No, there cannot be more than 1 main window in SAP Script because, in WRITE_FORM, it asks for the parameter Window that will create the problem.

WRITE_FORM

Exporting
Element
Window

18. What Are The Differences Between Sap Memory And Abap Memory?
Answer: ABAP Memory is a memory area in the internal session (roll area) of an ABAP program. Data within this area is retained within a sequence of program calls, allowing you to pass data between programs that call one another. It is also possible to pass data between sessions using SAP Memory.
SAP Memory is a memory area to which all sessions within a SAPgui have access. You can use SAP memory either to pass data from one program to another within a session (as with ABAP memory) or to pass data from one session to another.

19. What Are Differences Between At Selection-screen And At Selection-screen Output?
Answer:
AT SELECTION-SCREEN – the event is triggered in the PAI of the selection screen once the ABAP runtime environment has passed all of the input data from the selection screen to the ABAP program.
AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT – This event block allows you to modify the selection screen directly before it is displayed.

20. What Is The Inside Concept In Select-options?
Answer: Select-options specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.

Different Properties of Select-options:
1) Visible Length
2) Matchcode Object
3) Memory ID
4) Lowercase
5) Obligatory
6) No Display
7) Modify ID

21. What Is The Difference Between Free And Refresh?
Answer: Free – You can use FREE to initialize an internal table and release its memory space without first using the REFRESH or CLEAR statement. Like REFRESH, FREE works on the table body, not on the table work area. After a FREE statement, you can address the internal table again. It still occupies the amount of memory required for its header (currently 256 bytes). When you refill the table, the system has to allocate new memory space to the lines.
Refresh – This always applies to the body of the table. As with the CLEAR statement, the memory used by the table before you initialized it remains allocated. To release the memory space, use the statement. 

22. Can We Have More Than One Selection-screen And How?
Answer:
Yes, we can have more than one selection screen.
Selection-screen begin of block honey with frame title text-101.
Select-options : deptno for zrekha_deptt-deptno.
Selection-screen end of block honey.
Selection-screen begin of block honey1 with frame title text-102.
Select-options : dname for zrekha_deptt-dname.
Selection-screen end of block honey1.

23. How To Declare Select-option As A Parameter?
Answer:
SELECT-OPTIONS: specify are displayed on the selection screen for the user to enter values.
Parameters: name like dept-name.
Select-options: name for dept-name.

24. How Can You Write Programmatically Value Help To A Field Without Using Search Help And Match Codes?
Answer:
By using two types of function modules to be called in SAP Script:
HELP_OBJECT_SHOW_FOR_FIELD
HELP_OBJECT_SHOW.

25. What Are The Differences Between Se01, Se09, And Se10?
Answer:
SE01 – Correction & Transport Organizer
SE09 – Workbench Organizer
SE10 – Customizing Organizer

26. What Is The Use Of Table Maintenance Allowed?
Answer: Mark the Table maintenance allowed flag if users with the corresponding authorization may change the data in the table using the Data Browser (Transaction SE16). If the data in the table should only be maintained with programs or with the table view maintenance transaction (Transaction SM30), you should not set the flag.

27. What are the names of the function modules that will be generated upon activation of a lock object?
Answer: Prior to creating setting any locks in an ABAP program, a lock object must be created in the ABAP dictionary. When the lock object is created, the system will automatically generate the two function modules required for lock management.
– The first function module used to set locks is the ENQUEUE_. This function module is used to generate a lock entry in the lock table. If the lock cannot be set for any reason then this would be reflected in the return code.
– The second function module used to release locks is the DEQUEUE_. This function module will remove a lock entry from the lock table.
– These function modules are used to set and release locks in an ABAP program. The programmer simply performs the specific “CALL FUNCTION…” statement for each function module.
– These lock function modules are executed in a specific work process with the SAP system dedicated to locking management. This work process is run on a single server that maintains the central lock table for the entire SAP system.
There are two types of locks that can be set:
Shared lock – is a read-only lock that prevents data from being changed while a user is reading it.
Exclusive lock – is a write lock that prevents data from being changed while a user is already modifying it.

28. What do you mean by an ABAP data dictionary?
Answer: To describe the logical structures of the objects that are used in application development ABAP 4 data dictionary is used. It is also used to show the underlying relational database in tables.

29. What two statements would be used to exchange data between programs using ABAP memory?
Answer: EXPORT to MEMORY ID will copy data to ABAP memory and IMPORT from MEMORY ID is used to copy the data from ABAP memory into a program.
– The data that is being exchanged via ABAP memory must be declared in the two programs involved with exactly the same data declarations.

30. What are authorization objects and what statement is used to perform an authorization check in an ABAP program?
Answer: Authorization objects are composed of a grouping of fields. The values in these fields will be used in an authorization check.
– AUTHORITY-CHECK is the statement used in an ABAP program to perform an authorization check against an authorization object. In the AUTHORITY-CHECK statement, all fields of the object must be addressed or the keyword DUMMY is used to bypass checking on a field.
There can be a maximum of 10 fields defined on an authorization object.

31. What is the definition of modification in an SAP system and how do they impact an upgrade?
Answer: A modification is a change made by a customer to an SAP delivered repository object. Modifications must be reviewed during upgrade time to determine if the new SAP object should be used or if the modified object can still be used with or without further modifications.

32. What are the domains and data element?
Answer:

Domains: Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of business objects. It describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like a description of the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.

33. What is a foreign key relationship?
Answer: A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there is no contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.
Describe data classes.
Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed.

System data: It is the data which the R/3 system needs for itself.

34. What are indexes?
Answer: Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form eases fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.
Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.
Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in the database. Its structure corresponds to a single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. The transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary have a many-to-one relation with the table in the database. Table in the database has a different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in a table pool at the database level.

35. What is an ABAP/4 Query?
Answer: ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. – For creating an ABAP/4 Query, the programmer has to create a user group and a functional group. The functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.

36. What is DynPro?
Answer: DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.

37. What are the screen painter and menu painter?
Answer: Screen painter: Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows the user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions, and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of ABAP/4 applications.

38. What are the components of SAP scripts?
Answer: SAPscript is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a standard normal document. Layout sets. – Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of a Header, paragraph, and a character string. ABAP/4 program.

39. What is CTS and what do you know about it?
Answer: The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project.

40. What Is An Abap Instance?
Answer: When you call a function module, an instance of its function group plus its data, is loaded into the memory area of the internal session. An ABAP program can load several instances by calling function modules from different functional groups.

41. What Is Sap R/3?
Answer: SAP R/3 refers to Systems Application and Product for data processing Real-time having a 3 tier architecture i.e. Presentation layer, Application layer, and Database layer.

42. What Are The Contents In Technical Specifications?
Answer:
There are five contents in Technical Settings:

  • Data Class
  • Size Category
  • Buffering Permission
  • Buffering Type and
  • Logging.

43. What type of user exits have you written?
Answer:
there are four types
1.function exit
2.menu exit
3.screen exit.
4.field exit.
these are the user exits

44. What is the collect statement? How is it different from append?
Answer:
APPEND:
IT IS USED TO GET THE RECORD FROM THE INTERNAL TABLE HEADER TO THE BODY AREA
IT ALLOWS DUPLICATION
COLLECT:
IT IS USED TO A GET A RECORD FROM HEADER TO THE BODY AREA BUT IT WILL NOT ALLOW ANY DUPLICATION EXCEPT IF THERE are ANY NUMERIC FIELS IT ADDS THAT FIELDS DATA BUT NOT AS A NEW RECORD.

45. What is an ABAP dictionary?
Answer: ABAP dictionary is a central data management system. Its main function is to support the creation and management of data definitions.

46. What are the basic objects of the data dictionary?
Answer:

  • Tables
  • Domains
  • Data elements
  • Structures
  • Foreign keys

47. What is the difference between Data elements and Domains?
Answer:
Data Element Domain
Data Element gives semantic attributes like field labels and online documentation Domain gives the technical attributes like data type and field length.

48. How to create client independent tables?
Answer:

client independent tables:
the table in which the first field is not mandt is the client independent tables
mandt in the field with mandt as the data element
automatically client which we log in is populated to mandt

49. Have you used performance tuning? What major steps will you use for these?
Answer:
First of all, tuning can be done
In three ways: disk i/o, sql tuning, memory tuning,
Before tuning u have to get the status of your database using
Oracle utility called stat pack, tkprof, then you should go for running

50. What are the different types of parameters? How can you distinguish between different kinds of parameters?
Answer:
The different types of parameters are
a) Formal Parameters: It is defined during the definition of subroutine with the ‘FORM’ statement
b) Actual Parameters: It is specified during the call of a subroutine with the ‘PERFORM’ statement
You can distinguish a different kind of parameters by their functionality. Input parameters are used to pass data to subroutines, while output parameters are used to pass data from subroutines.
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