Adobe CQ5 Interview Questions & Answers

1. What Is Cq5? Give Some Points About Cq5?
Ans: Adobe Communique 5, or CQ5, is a java based large-scale web content management system. It combines web content management, digital asset management, and social collaboration to deliver a solution that allows to manage incredible amounts of information, multiple internal and external websites, a myriad of media assets, and detailed workflow. CQ5 is set of content management services built on a content-centric Web application framework on top of a Java Content Repository.

The product has been completely redesigned from Communiqué 4, allowing Adobe to use new architecture and technologies. The Graphical User Interface has been completely re-engineered using AJAX and the latest browser technologies. This leads to an unparalleled user experience.

2. How clustering is done in CQ5?
Ans: CQ5 CRX is pre-loaded to run within a cluster, even when running a single instance. Hence the configuration of multi-node clusters with little effort happens in CQ5.

3. Difference between CQ5.4 and CQ5.5?
Ans: Versions of CQ before 5.5 were based on a servlet container (CQSE, by default, though others could be used) running with multiple web apps: One for the CRX content repository and one for the OSGi container which itself contained Sling and AEM. The Sling web app was bound to the root and handled most of the request processing.

With CQ 5.5 and AEM, the OSGi container is positioned at the root and the OSGi HTTP service, backed by Sling acting as the sole request handling endpoint. The CRX content repository is now just another OSGi service, alongside the various services that comprise the rest of the AEM functionality. These changes do not affect applications built on top of AEM or Sling.

The new architecture means that the quickstart jar installation of AEM can no longer support other web applications running alongside AEM. However, the war version of AEM is designed to be deployed in an application server, where additional web applications can be deployed alongside it.

4. Why Cq5? What Are The Advantages Of Using Cq5?
Ans: Building websites through a rich graphical interface, corporate design and user access control of editing and publishing rights. Implementation of workflows for creating, editing and publishing of content. Managing a repository of digital assets like images, documents and integrating them to the websites.
Usage of search queries to find content no matter where it is stored in your organization. Setting up easily the social collaboration blogs, groups. Tagging utility to organize the digital assets such as images.

5. How You Can Inherit Properties Of One Dialog To Another Dialog?
Ans: For inheriting properties we have to create two components with unique names in the base component dialog. For eg. If your plan is to have two rich text two rich text areas in the dialog of components that inherit from the base, then you must include two rich text areas with unique names in the base component dialog. In any case every input field of a dialog must have a unique name, else they will point to the same property path relative to the jcr:content node of the component when used on a page.

6. What is Dependency/Dependencies in the client library?
Ans: It is a list of other client library categories on which this library folder depends. For example, given two cq: ClientLibraryFolder nodes F and G, if a file in F requires another file in G in order to function properly, then at least one of the categories of G should be among the dependencies of F.

7. What is Adaptive Document?
Ans: Adaptive Document is used to display output to the end user. For example- a bank statement is an adaptive document as all its content remain same only name and amount changes. Basically we put place holder text in Adaptive Document which are filled dynamically at run time.

8. What Are The Benefits Of Osgi Application Framework?
Ans: Aplications are portable, easier to re-engineer, and adaptable to changing requirements.
It supports administration of application bundle dependencies and versions, simplifying and standardizing third-party library integration.
The framework provides isolation for enterprise applications that are composed of multiple, versioned bundles with dynamic life cycles.
OSGi applications can access external bundle repositories. The framework reinforces service-oriented design at the module level.

9. Explain Osgi[open Systems Gateway Initiative] In Cq5?
Ans: Dynamic module system for Java.
Universal Middleware Category.
Helps applications to be constructed from small, reusable and collaborative components.
OSGi bundles can contain compiled Java code, scripts, or any contents to be loaded in the repository.

1o. Explain DAM Renditions?
Ans: The DAM allows you to create renditions of an image that include different sizes and versions of the same asset. You can use those renditions in the content of your website, and that can be helpful when you need to create thumbnails or smaller views of large, high-resolution images. When you are creating multi-device websites where Internet bandwidth is a varying concern, this feature becomes even more important. After all, you want to minimize the size of any files a site visitor has to download to view your site. Making your site load faster improves your search engine optimization and the user experience.

11. What is the purpose of clientlibs?
Ans: It is used for adding site-specific js and CSS files to the page and also third party js and CSS files.

12. What are xtypes and how are they useful in AEM?
Ans: In the ExtJS language an xtype is a symbolic name given to a class. In AEM these xtypes are widgets that used in the creation of components. AEM comes with a bunch of widgets that are available out of the box. You can also create and define your own xtype to be used in AEM. An example of an xytpe is when you are creating your dialog for your component, and you want the author to be able to enter text, you would add a “cq:Widget” that has an xtype property of “textfield”.

13. What Is A Component In Cq5?
Ans: Components:
• are modular units which realize specific functionality to present your content on your website.
• are re-usable.
• are developed as self-contained units within one folder of the repository.
• have no hidden configuration files.
• can contain other components.
• run anywhere within any CQ system.
• have a standardized user interface.
• use widgets.

14. What are Cq Widgets, Explain?
Ans: Are the highly polished user interface elements that work across all the most important browsers and allow the creation of desktop-grade UI experiences.
These widgets are included within CQ and, in addition to being used by CQ itself, can be used by any website built using CQ.

15. What is the technology stack of cq5?
Ans: Cq5 uses the following technologies :
JCR: Java specification for accessing a content repository JSR-283 specification JCR 2.0, cq5 uses its own implementation of JCR called CRX. Apache Jackrabbit is an open-source implementation of the jcr 2.0 specification.
Apache Sling: RESTful framework to access a JCR over Http protocol. It maps the request URL to the node in JCR.
OSGi(Apache Felix): a framework for modular application development using java. Each module called bundle can be independently started and stopped.OSGi container provides implementation classes for the OSGi framework.

18. What is the Role of Persistence Manager in CQ5?
Ans: The persistence manager saves the repository content to a permanent storage solution, such as the file system or a database. By default, CRX saves repository content to the Tar persistence manager. Following DB’s can be used for storing content – DB2, Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL.

19. Difference between OSGi bundle and Normal Jar file?
Ans: OSGi bundles are jar files with metadata inside. Much of this metadata is in the jar’s manifest, found at META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. This metadata, when read by an OSGi runtime container, is what gives the bundle its power.
With OSGi, just because a class is public doesn’t mean you can get to it. All bundles include an export list of package names, and if a package isn’t in the export list, it doesn’t exist to the outside world. This allows developers to build an extensive internal class hierarchy and minimize the surface area of the bundle’s API without abusing the notion of package-private visibility. A common pattern, for instance, is to put interfaces in one package and implementations in another and only export the interface package.
All OSGi bundles are given a version number, so it’s possible for an application to simultaneously access different versions of the same bundle (eg: JUnit 3.8.1 and JUnit 4.0.). Since each bundle has its own classloader, both bundles classes can coexist in the same JVM.
OSGi bundles declare which other bundles they depend upon. This allows them to ensure that any dependencies are met before the bundle is resolved. Only resolved bundles can be activated. Because bundles have versions, versioning can be included in the dependency specification, so one bundle can depend on version JUnit version 3.8.1 and another bundle depends on JUnit version 4.0.
In the OSGi bundle, there will be an Activator.java class in OSGi which is an optional listener class to be notified of bundle start and stop events.

20. What Is Meant By Jcr (java Content Repository)?
Ans: A Java Content Repository uses the JSR-170 API to access the content repository using Java, independent of the physical implementation. JCR is the Java Content Repository standard, also known as JSR-170 after its Java Specification Request. Later revised version 2 as (JCR-283). A repository effectively consists of two parts.

A Web application that offers the JSR-170 compliant API and temporary data storage (in the form of the session).
A Persistence Manager with persistent data storage, such as the file system or a database.

21. Explain the Multi-Site Manager?
Ans: Multi-Site Manager (MSM) enables you to easily manage multiple web sites that share common content. MSM lets you define relations between the sites so that content changes in one site are automatically replicated in other sites.
For example, web sites are often provided in multiple languages for international audiences. When the number of sites in the same language is low (three to five), a manual process for syncronizing content across sites is possible. However, as soon as the number of sites grows or when multiple languages are involved, it becomes more efficient to automate the process.

22. What is Reverse Replication?
Ans: Reverse replication is used to get user content generated on a publish instance back to the author instance. To do this you need a reverse replication agent in the author environment. This act as the active component to collect information from the outbox in the publish environment.

23. How you can inherit the properties of one dialog to another dialog?
Ans: For inheriting properties we have to create two components with unique names in the base component dialog. For eg. If your plan is to have two rich text areas in the dialog of components that inherit from the base, then you must include two rich text areas with unique names in the base component dialog. In any case, every input field of a dialog must have a unique name, else they will point to the same property path relative to the JCR: content node of the component when used on a page.
24. Explain life cycle of OSGI bundle?
Ans: Life cycle states of OSGI:
Installed: The bundle has been successfully installed.
Resolved: All Java classes that the bundle needs are available. This state indicates that the bundle is either ready to be started or has stopped.
Starting: The bundle is being started, the BundleActivator.start method will be called, and this method has not yet returned. When the bundle has an activation policy, the bundle will remain in the STARTING state until the bundle is activated according to its activation policy.
Active: The bundle has been successfully activated and is running; its Bundle Activator start method has been called and returned.
Stopping: The bundle is being stopped. The BundleActivator.stop method has been called but the stop method has not yet returned.
Uninstalled: The bundle has been uninstalled. It cannot move into another state.

25. Explain Digital Asset Manager (dam) In Cq5, ?
Ans: The DAM is where authors can upload files (other than HTML) for publishing on their websites. Examples include images and PDF documents. The interface is similar to the WCM.
DAM Left Panel: The folder structure is on the left panel, and can be expanded or collapsed by clicking the appropriate plus (+) or minus (-) symbols. For your first time using the DAM, you will need to navigate to your department’s Digital Assets through the tree, beginning with SFU. Contact your Site Administrator if you cannot see your department’s Digital Assets space. You can only see those that you have been authorized to.
DAM right Panel: The right panel will display the folders and their contents, including thumbnails of images. A double-click on the image will display a larger version and details such as its size, description, tags, and dimensions.
While determining the folder structure of the contents within the DAM is entirely to the authors’ discretion, keeping it similar to the site structure in the WCM is suggested. This will offer a visual reference between the relationship of the files in the DAM and the pages in the WCM. All files must be uploaded to the DAM before they can be used; the system cannot access online files. Each must be activated (the same way as activating a content page), otherwise it will not appear on the published page, and it will only be in the authorrsquo;s editing window.

26. Can We Restrict For Certain Users Not To Display Some Digital Assets?
Ans: You can always limit who can access certain folders in CQ Digital Assets by making the folder part of a CUG(closed user group). Steps to make a folder part of a CUG:
In CQ DAM, right-click the folder you want to add closed user group properties for and select Properties.

Select the Enabled check box to make the folder and its assets available only to a closed user group.
Browse to the login page, if there is one, to add that information. Add admitted groups by clicking Add item. If necessary, add the realm. Click OK to save your changes.

27.  Explain about Cq Workflow Engine?
Ans: CQ encompasses several applications that are designed to interact and complement each other. In particular, the Workflow Engine can be used in tight conjunction with several of the other applications.
Workflows are at the center of how form submissions in CQ WCM are typically processed. When creating a new form, the form submission can be easily associated with a workflow model, for example to store the content in a particular location of the repository or to notify a user about the form submission and its content.

28. What is CQ5? Why Content Management System is Required? Advantages of CQ5 over other CMS?
Ans: CQ5 is a java based content management system from adobe, previously Day CQ5
It is based on a content repository(i.e it uses a content repository to store the content of a website) and use JCR(Java content repository) specification to access the content repository.
It uses RESTfulApache Sling framework to map request URL to the corresponding node in the content repository
It uses a powerful OSGi framework internally to allow modular application development. It means individual pieces of your application(called bundles in terms of OSGi) can be independently started and stopped.
CQ5 uses Apache Felix as the OSGi container. Therefore different parts of cq5 can be independently started and stopped.
Why a content management system is required? Some websites are very dynamic in nature, content needs to be updated frequently, so it is easier to manage the content of such websites using a CMS.
Advantages of CQ5 over other CMS:
Training!Implementation of workflows for creating, editing and publishing of content
Managing a repository of digital assets like images, documents and integrating them to the websites.
Usage of search queries to find content no matter where it is stored in your organization.
Setting up easily the social collaboration blogs, groups.
Tagging utility to organize digital assets such as image.

27. How Does Cq Work? Speciality?

Ans: CQ is an online content management system. This means that authors do not need to install special software in order to use CQ; only a browser is needed.
In CQ, authors create, modify and delete content on an authoring environment.
Basic authoring activities in CQ such as adding text, images, and basic layouts, do not require the knowledge of HTML.
Changes to content in CQ are not made visible to the public until authors activate them (i.e., publish the content). Authors can also deactivate (i.e., unpublish) content if necessary.

28. Explain the  Clustering In Cq5?
Ans: In computing, a cluster is a group of computers linked together to work, in some respects, as a single computer. Every Cq5 CRX instance comes pre-configured to run within a cluster,even when running a singular instance. This design feature allows the configuration of multi-node clusters with little effort.

29. Difference between Design Dialog and Edit Dialog?
Ans: Both dialog and design dialog defines the UI interface for allowing the user to configure the component.
Design Dialog of a component can be seen/edited in the design mode of the page. Design dialog is at template level so all the page of the template will share the same design dialog and it is stored under /etc/designs folder.
Whereas Dialog of a component is at page level so each component instance will have its own dialog and information entered in the dialog will be stored under /content folder.

30. What is the difference between the live copy and language copy?
Ans: Live Copy: Copy created from an existing site or blueprint is called Live Copy. Rollout configurations for this Live Copy can be configured from tools console.
Language Copy: Site which is created using a language tool is called Language copy. Basically to create a site for different languages.

31. What is Replication in CQ5?
Ans: Publish (activate) content from an author to publish the environment.
Explicitly flush content from the dispatcher cache.
Return user input from the publish environment to the author’s environment.
REPLICATION PROCESS:
First, the author requests that certain content be published (activated).
The request is passed to the appropriate default replication agent.
Replication agent packages the content and places it in the replication queue.
The content is lifted from the queue and transported to the publish environment using the configured protocol.

32. What is the contribution of the Servlet Engine in CQ5?
Ans: Servlet Engine pretends as a server within which each CQ (and CRX if used) instance runs. Even though you can run CQ WCM without an application server, always a Servlet Engine is needed.

33. What is difference between live copy and language copy?
Ans: Live Copy: Copy created from existing site or blue print is called Live Copy. Rollout configurations for this Live Copy can be configured from tools console.
Language Copy: Site which is created using language tool is called Language copy. Basically to create a site for different language.

34. Where does the cache directory exists for CQ5?
Ans: The Dispatcher uses a Cache Directory for caching static content. The cached documents are created in the root of a web-server.

35. What are the differences between parsys and iparsys?
Ans: parsys: It is a placeholder called “Paragraph System”, where we can drag and drop or add other components or scripts at page level.
iparsys: It is inherited paragraph system, it is similar to parsys except that it allows to inherits parent page “paragraph system”.

36.What Is Osgi In Cq5? Explain?
Ans: OSGi stands for “Open Systems Gateway initiative”
comes under the classification Universal Middleware.
“provides the standardized primitives that allow applications to be constructed from small, reusable and collaborative components. These components can be composed into an application and deployed.”
OSGi bundles can contain compiled Java code, scripts, content that is to be loaded in the repository, and configuration or additional files, as needed.
allows the bundles to be loaded, and installed, during normal operations. In the case of CQ5, this is managed by the Sling Management Console.

37. Why the Sling Scripts Cannot Be Called Directly In Cq5?
Ans: Scripts cannot be called directly within Sling since it will break the strict concept of a REST server; you would mix resources and representations.
If you call the representation (the script) directly you hide the resource inside your script, so the framework (Sling) no longer knows about it.

38. What is a Template?
Ans: A CQ template enables you to define a consistent style for the pages in your application. A template comprises of nodes that specify the page structure.

39. How to connect to external Database in CQ?
Ans: To connect to external DB, we need to configure a connection pool by creating a node of type sling:OsgiConfig.

40. Give A Note About Apache Sling?
Ans: Apache Sling is a web application framework for content-centric applications, using a Java Content Repository, such as Apache Jackrabbit or CRX, to store and manage content.
Sling:
it is based on REST principles to provide easy development of content-oriented applications.
it is embedded within CQ5.
it is used to process HTTP rendering and data-storage requests which assemble, render and send the content to a client (i.e. the new delivery).
it can maps Content objects to Components (which render them and process incoming data).
it comes with both server-side and AJAX scripting support.
it can be used with a range of scripting languages, including JSP, ESP and Ruby.
it can started as an internal project of Day Management AG.
it has been contributed to the Apache Software Foundation.

41. How Good Is Cq5 When Compared To Other Cms?
Ans: CQ5 is perfect for large content-driven sites.
Flexibility:
Even non-technical users can update the content.
Duplicating the site will be very easy to create a mobile friendly version.
Excellent at managing multiple touch-points.
It is very easy to deploy and scale up or down.
Time management:
Very less amount of time to develop.
Relies on real open standards which are not de facto standards.
Best integration with third party systems.
Content reusability.
Adobe CQ5 provides automation, a very intuitive interface and great performance.

42. How Dispatcher performs Load-balancing?
Ans: Performance Statistics: Dispatcher keeps statistics on how fast each instance of cq is responding to a particular url. Based on those metrics, dispatcher determines which instance of cq will fetch the quickest response for any request and relays the request to that cq instance.
Sticky Connections: when a user session is established, then all incoming requests from that user should be served by the same cq instance, because other cq instances cannot recognize the user session and generate personalized pages for him. Dispatcher makes sure all requests for user session are served from the same cq instance.
Increased fail-safe coverage: If the Dispatcher does not receive responses from an instance, it will automatically relay requests to one of the other instance(s)
Increased processing power: In practice this means that the Dispatcher shares document requests between several instances of CQ. Because each instance has fewer documents to process, you have faster response times.

43. Why a content management system is required in CQ?
Ans: Now a days websites are very dynamic in nature, content needs to be updated very frequently, So, it is easier to manage the content of such websites using a CMS.
44. can we restrict certain users not to display some digital assets?
Ans: You can always limit who can access certain folders in CQ Digital Assets by making the folder part of a CUG(closed user group).
Steps to make a folder part of a CUG:
In CQ DAM, right-click the folder you want to add closed user group properties for and select Properties.
Select the Enabled checkbox to make the folder and its assets available only to a closed user group.
Browse to the login page, if there is one, to add that information. Add admitted groups by clicking Add item. If necessary, add the realm. Click OK to save your changes.

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