Weblogic Server Administration Tutorial

weblogic server administration tutorial from svr technologies by 12+ years experienced faculty. 30+ Tutorial videos & 100+ interview questions and answers.

Weblogic Tutorial Videos

You, Will, Learn in Weblogic Tutorial

1. Question: How Can Port Number Be Checked?

Answer: Port Checker is a simple and free online tool for checking open ports on your computer/device, often useful in testing port forwarding setup on a machine.  For instance, if you’re facing a connection issue with a program (email, IM client etc) then it may be possible that the port required by the application is getting blocked by firewall or ISP.

In such cases, this tool might help you in diagnosing the issue. It’s also useful for security reasons, in case you’re worried whether a particular port is open or closed.

2. Question: Define Memory Leak?

Answer: A memory leak is a process in which a program or application persistently retains a computer’s primary memory. It occurs when the resident memory program does not return or release allocated memory space, even after execution, resulting in slower or unresponsive system behavior. 

3. Question: How Can Classpath Be Set?

Answer: In order to set Classpath for Java in Windows (any version either Windows XP, Windows 2000 or Windows 7) you need to specify the value of environment variable CLASSPATH, the name of this variable is not case sensitive and it doesn’t matter if the name of your environment variable is Classpath, CLASSPATH or classpath in Java. Here is Step by Step guide for setting Java Classpath in Windows:

1. Go to Environment variable window in Windows by pressing “Windows + Pause “–> Advanced –> Environment variable ” or you can go from right click on my computer than choosing properties and then Advanced and then Environment variable this will open Environment variable window in windows.

2. Now specify your environment variable CLASSPATH and put the value of your JAVA_HOME\lib and also include the current directory by including (dot or period sign). 

3. Now to check the value of Java classpath in windows type “echo %CLASSPATH” in your DOS command prompt and it will show you the value of directory which is included in CLASSPATH. 

You can also set classpath in windows by using DOS command like:

set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;JAVA_HOME\lib;

This way you can set the classpath in Windows XP, windows 2000 or Windows 7 and 8, as they all come with command prompt. 

4. Question: How Do Stubs Function Inside WebLogic Server Cluster at the Time of Failure?

Answer: Stubs perform the process of removing the failed instance from the list whenever there is a failure. The stub usually makes use of DNS for finding the running server and also for obtaining the list of the instances that are currently available with the application.

A list of the instances available with the server inside the cluster gets periodically refreshment and allows in acquiring advantages associated with new servers. The advantages are gained as the server gets added to the cluster. 

5. Question: Explain the Use of HTTP?

Answer: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. 

Hypertext is a structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. 

The development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs). The first definition of HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use, occurred in RFC 2068 in 1997,

although this was obsoleted by RFC 2616 in 1999 and then again by RFC 7230 and family in 2014. 

6. Question: What is web.xml?

Answer: The web.xml file is the Web Application Deployment Descriptor of your application. This file is an XML document that defines everything about your application that a server needs to know (except the context path, which is assigned by the Application Deployer and Administrator when the application is deployed): servlets and other components like filters or listeners, initialization parameters, container-managed security constraints, resources, welcome pages, etc. 

7. Question: Are WebLogic Server Passwords Secure?

Answer: It is important to protect passwords that are used to access resources in a WebLogic domain. In the past, usernames and passwords were stored in clear text in a WebLogic security realm. Now all the passwords in a WebLogic domain are hashed. The SerializedSystemIni.dat file contains the hashes for the passwords. It is associated with a specific WebLogic domain so it cannot be moved from domain to domain.

If the SerializedSystemIni.dat file is destroyed or corrupted, you must reconfigure the WebLogic domain. Therefore, you should take the following precautions: 

  • Make a backup copy of the SerializedSystemIni.dat file and put it in a safe location.
  • Set permissions on the SerializedSystemIni.dat file such that the system administrator of a WebLogic Server deployment has written and read privileges and no other users have any privileges. 

8. Question: Can I Programmatically Add Users and Groups to the WebLogic Authentication Provider?

Answer: Authentication providers need a list of users and groups before they can be used to perform authentication in a running WebLogic Server. Some Authentication providers let the administrator configure an external database (for example, add the users and groups to an LDAP server or a DBMS) and then configure the provider to use that database. These providers don’t have to worry about how the users and groups are populated because the administrator does that first, using the external database’s tools. 

However, some Authentication providers create and manage their own list of users and groups. This is the case for the ManageableSampleAuthenticator provider. These providers need to worry about how their initial set of users and groups is populated. One way to handle this is for the provider’s “initialize” method to notice that the users and groups don’t exist yet, and then populate the list with an initial set of users and groups. 

Note that some providers have a separate list of users and groups for each security realm, and therefore need to create an initial set of users and groups the first time the list is used in a new realm. For example, the ManageableSampleAuthenticator provider creates a separate properties file of users and groups for each realm. Its initialize method gets the realm name, determines whether the properties file for that realm exists and, if not, creates one, populating it with its initial set of users and groups.

9. Question: Can I Use Other BEA Products With WebLogic Express, Like WebLogic Workshop, WebLogic Portal, or WebLogic Integration?

Answer: To use the WebLogic Server software, you must have a valid license file installed on your system. BEA products use an XML-format file called license. bea, which is created in the BEA Home directory by the installation program and is used for all the BEA products installed in that directory. At run time, your BEA software checks this file to determine which product components you are authorized to use. 

10. Question: Concepts and Capabilities of Weblogic Server?

Answer: Web Logic server supports the services and infrastructure for JEE applications. The deployment of java applications and components as services through SOAP, UDDI, and WSDL are performed by Web Logic server. The server can be configured as a web server by using its own HTTP listener that supports HTTP 1.1. The web servers of Apache, Microsoft IIS, and Netscape can also be utilized. The web server configuration allows the Web Logic server to provide services to the static and dynamic requests that are generated by HTML, Servlets, and JSP. 

11. Question: Deployment Using Java Weblogic Deployer Command?

Answer: Weblogic. Deployer is a Java-based deployment tool that provides a command-line interface to the WebLogic Server deployment API. weblogic.Deployer is intended for administrators and developers who want to perform interactive, command-line based deployment operations.

See the WLST Command and Variable Reference for information about performing deployment operations using the WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST). 

12. Question: Deployment Using wlst?

Answer: WebLogic Server implements the Java EE 6 specification. Java EE 6 includes a deployment specification, JSR-88, that describes a standard API used by deployment tools and application service providers to configure and deploy applications to an application server. 

WebLogic Server implements both the JSR-88 Service Provider Interface (SPI) plug-in and model plug-in to comply with the Java EE deployment specification. We can use a basic Java EE deployment API deployment tool with the WebLogic Server plug-ins (without using WebLogic Server extensions to the API) to configure, deploy, and redeploy Java EE applications and modules to WebLogic Server. The WebLogic Server configuration generated by a Java EE deployment API configuration process is stored in a deployment plan and one or more generated WebLogic Server deployment descriptor files.

The WebLogic Server deployment plan generated by a Java EE deployment API deployment tool identifies the WebLogic Server deployment descriptors that were generated for the application during the configuration session.

Although the Java EE deployment API provides a simple, standardized way to configure applications and modules for use with a Java EE-compliant application server, the specification does not address many deployment features that were available in previous WebLogic Server releases. For this reason, WebLogic Server provides important extensions to the Java EE deployment API specification to support capabilities described in WebLogic Server Deployment Features. 

Preparing the deployment:

In order to create WLST scripts that automatically deploys a bunch of applications, we start with preparing the set-up (directory structure, adding a version for production redeployment, generating a deployment plan if needed).

13. Question: Difference Between Weblogic Development and Production Mode?

Answer:

Development mode:

    • The default JDK for development domain is Sun Hotspot
    • You can use the demo certificates for SSL
    • Auto deployment is enabled
    • Server instances rotate their log files on startup
    • Admin Server uses an automatically created boot.properties during startup
    • The default maximum capacity for JDBC Datasource is 15
    • The debugFlag which is used to start the WebLogic Workshop Debugger is enabled.

Production mode:

    • The default JDK for production domain is JRockit
    • If you use the demo certificates for SSL a warning is displayed. 
    • Auto deployment is disabled
    • Server instances rotate their log files when it reaches 5MB
    • Admin Server prompts for username and password during startup
    • The default maximum capacity for JDBC Datasource is 25
    • The debugFlag which is used to start the WebLogic Workshop Debugger is disabled.
    • If you would like to know how to change to Weblogic start-up mode from DEV to PROD or vice versa.

14. Question: Explain the Term Clustering?

Answer: Clustering, in the context of databases, refers to the ability of several servers or instances to connect to a single database. An instance is the collection of memory and processes that interacts with a database, which is the set of physical files that actually store data. (E learning)

Clustering offers two major advantages, especially in high-volume database environments:

Fault tolerance: Because there is more than one server or instance for users to connect to, clustering offers an alternative, in the event of individual server failure.

Load balancing: The clustering feature is usually set up to allow users to be automatically allocated to the server with the least load.

15. Question: Explain WebLogic Server?

Answer: BEA Systems’ WebLogic is a server software application that runs on a middle tier, between back-end databases and related applications and browser-based thin clients. WebLogic is a leading e-commerce online transaction processing (OLTP) platform, developed to connect users in a distributed computing environment and to facilitate the integration of mainframe applications with distributed corporate data and applications.

WebLogic server is based on Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), the standard platform used to create Java-based multi-tier enterprise applications. J2EE platform technologies were developed through the efforts of BEA Systems and other vendors in collaboration with the main developer, Sun Microsystems. Because J2EE applications are standardized modules, WebLogic can automate many system-level tasks that would otherwise have demanded programming time.

16. Question: How Can You know That the Database Has Connected to Your Weblogic Server?

Answer:
1. In admin console you can go to the JDBC->connection pool->  ( How Can You know That the Database Has Connected to Your Weblogic Server)

You will find status as running if DB is up i.e connected.

And to be more confident

JDBC->connection pool-> test

– Test connection successfully ( test connection attributes
in the advanced configuration of the connection, the pool should
be checked and there should be a dummy table — “dual” is by
default)

– If “Test connection” attributes are not checked then a
a warning will appear.

2. If a DB connection is not available, you can find
related messages in the server logs also.

17. Question: How Do I Edit The config.xml File?

Answer: The XML Editor is the new editor for XML files. It can be used on a stand-alone XML file, or on a file associated with a Visual Studio project. The XML Editor is associated with the following file extensions: .config, .dtd, .xml, .xsd, .xdr, .xsl, .xslt, and .vssettings. The XML Editor is also associated with any other file type that has no specific editor registered, and that contains XML or DTD content. 

To edit an XML file

1. Double-click the file you want to edit.

To add a new XML file to a project

1. From the Project menu, select Add New Item.

2. Select XML File from the Templates pane.

3. Enter the filename in the Name field and press Add. 

The XML file is added to the project and opened in the XML Editor. The file contains the default XML declaration,

To add an existing XML file to a project

1. From the Project menu, select Add Existing Item.

The Add Existing Item dialog box appears.

2. Select an XML file and press Add.

To create a new XML or XSLT file

1. From the File menu, select New.

The New File dialog box appears.

2. Select XML File to create a new XML file; or, select XSLT File to create a new XSLT style sheet.

3. Click Open.

To create a project for XML files

1. From the File menu, select New, and then select Project.

The New Project dialog box appears.

2. Select the code language of your choice, select the Empty Project, and click OK.

3. Add XML files to the project.

The XML Editor finds the schemas you add to this project and uses them for validation and IntelliSense in any XML, schema, or XSLT files that you edit while this project is open.

18. Question: How Do I Increase WebLogic Server Memory? 

Answer: Increase the allocation of Java heap memory for WebLogic Server. (Set the minimum and the maximum to the same size.) Start WebLogic Server with the -ms32m option to increase the allocation, as in this example:

$ java … -ms32m -mx32m …

This allocates 32 megabytes of Java heap memory to WebLogic Server, which improves performance and allows WebLogic Server to handle more simultaneous connections. You can increase this value if necessary. 

This can be modified in setDomainEnv.sh file, or server start tab in the admin console. 

WEBLOGIC_HOME>\user_projects\domains\\bin\setDomainEnv.sh

19. Question: How Do You Identify Weblogic Health in Production?

Answer: Main Threads…

checking ThreadPool state for the WebLogic instance.

This depends on the client capacity … if Client is willing to spend much on monitoring no downtime then Introscope,

HP-OVO some more tools are available. for me, I m using WLST for JVM, Idle, Hogging thread count program which I had published in my blog.

20. Question: How Many Modes of Installation of Weblogic Server?

Answer: There is a various way of installing the Weblogic server.

– Graphical Mode
– Console Mode
– Silence Mode

1. Graphical Mode:

Double click the EXE file that you downloaded from the oracle website.

It will come up with this screen which you can click next to provide JDK, Middleware home and finally configure WebLogic server.

2. Console Mode:

wls1034_win32.exe -mode=console –log=filepath

It is like installing using window command window or Unix command shell. 

3.Silent Mode:

It is a one-time configuration that can be used to install WebLogic on multiple machines. We need to create silent.xml file and provide all necessary information for installation including JAVA_HOME, MW_HOME, etc.

21. Question: How Many Types of Clustering Are There in Weblogic Server?

Answer: The WebLogic Clusters offer a cost-effective, high-performance, and highly available architecture for the cluster-aware applications. There are many types of clusters in various environments and capacity plannings. Generally, clusters are classified based on their functionality. Here I am briefly discussing the types of clusters they are: 

    1. Failover Clusters
    2. Scalable High-Performance Clusters
    3. Application Clusters
  1. Network Load balancing clusters
  2. Other types of clusters

Let us examine the similarities and differences of each class of clusters.

22. Question: How Many Ways to Startup the Weblogic Server?

Answer: There are many ways to start & stop WebLogic Admin and managed servers:

You can start and stop Admin Server using :

1) Scripts

2) “Java weblogic.server “command (The weblogic.Server class is the main class for a WebLogic Server instance)

3) From startup option on windows

4) WLST with or without node manager

You can start managed servers using:

1) scripts

2) admin console

3) using WLST

4) using node manager

5) java WebLogic.server command (The weblogic.Server class is the main class for a WebLogicServer instance) 

23. Question: How to Make a Managed Server?

Answer: When you create a domain, you also create an Administration Server, which runs the Administration Console and distributes configuration changes to other servers in the domain. In a typical production environment, you create one or more Managed Servers in the domain to host business applications and use the Administration Server only to configure and monitor the Managed Servers.

To create a Managed Server in an existing domain:

1. If you have not already done so, in the Change Center of the Administration Console, click Lock & Edit (see Use the Change Center).
2. In the Administration Console, expand Environment > Servers.
3. On the Servers page, click New.
4. On the Create a New Server: Server Properties page:

a. Enter the name of the server in the Name field.

Each server within a domain must have a name that is unique for all configuration objects in the domain. Within a domain, each server, machine, cluster, JDBC connection pool, virtual host, and any other resource type must be named uniquely and must not use the same name as the domain.

The server name is not used as part of the URL for applications that are deployed on the server. It is for your identification purposes only. The server name displays in the Administration Console, and if you use WebLogic Server command-line utilities or APIs, you use this name to identify the server. 

b. In Listen Address, if you want to limit the valid addresses for a server instance, enter an IP address or DNS name. Otherwise, URLs to the server can specify any of the host computer’s IP address, any DNS name that maps to one of the IP addresses, or the localhost string.
c. In Listen Port, enter the port number from which you want to access the server instance.
If you run multiple server instances on a single computer, each server must use its own listen port.

d. Click Finish.

5. To activate these changes, in the Change Center of the Administration Console, click Activate Changes.
Not all changes take effect immediately—some require a restart. 

24. Question: How You Deploy Your Applications On Weblogic Server?

Answer: The deployment procedures below are for using Weblogic 9.1. The procedures for using different versions may vary.

In Manager, locate the existing Web application on the Applications page.

1. Check the box next to the Web application you want to deploy to Tomcat and hit the ‘Export’ button.
2. In the File Download dialog that appears, click the Save button.
3. In the ‘Save as type:’ section, choose All Files.
4. The default filename extension will be .zip. Change this to .war and save it to the file system. Click the ‘Close’ button when Save is complete.
(For example: C:\temp\myapp.war)
5. Start Weblogic Server. Click the ‘Start the Administration Console’ button to open the Administration Console.
6. In the Change Center section of the console, click the ‘Lock and Edit’ button to open the server instance for changes.
7. In the Domain Structure section of the console, find the ‘Deployments’ link and click on it.
8. You will see a Summary of Deployments. Here is where you will deploy the war file. Find and click the ‘Install’ button.
9. Browse to the location on your file system where the .war file was saved. Click the radio button next to the .war file and click ‘Next’ 
10. You want to deploy this module as an application. For the targeting style, make sure ‘Install this deployment as an application’ is selected. Click ‘Next’.
11. Click ‘Next’ again to accept the defaults in this next pane, then click ‘Finish’. 
12. You will now get a summary list of the settings for the deployment. Click the ‘Save’ button. If everything went ok, you will see a message in green that says ‘Settings updated successfully.’
13. Back in the Change Center section of the console, click the green ‘Activate Changes’ button. The application has been ‘prepared’, but not yet deployed at this point.
14. Back in the Domain Structure section of the console, find and click on the ‘Deployments’ link. In the Summary of Deployments, find your application, check the box next to it and click the ‘Start’ button. Select ‘Servicing all requests’. Click Yes to continue
15. If the state of your deployment says ‘Active’, you have successfully deployed your Web application to Weblogic.

25. Question: Is It Possible to Use the Oracle Database Rather Than PointBase With the Current Implementation of the WebLogic J2EE Connector Architecture?

Answer: BEA WebLogic Server continues to build upon the implementation of the Sun Microsystems J2EE Platform Specification, Version 1.3. The J2EE Connector Architecture adds simplified Enterprise Information System (EIS) integration to the J2EE platform. The goal is to leverage the strengths of the J2EE platform—including component models, transaction and security infrastructures—to address the challenges of EIS integration.

The J2EE Connector Architecture provides a Java solution to the problem of connectivity between the multitude of application servers and EIS. By using the Connector Architecture, it is no longer necessary for EIS vendors to customize their product for each application server. By conforming to the J2EE Connector Architecture, BEA WebLogic Server does not require added custom code in order to extend its support connectivity to a new EIS.
The Connector Architecture enables an EIS vendor to provide a standard resource adapter for its EIS. This resource adapter plugs into WebLogic Server and provides the underlying infrastructure for the integration between an EIS and WebLogic Server.

By supporting the Connector Architecture, BEA WebLogic Server is assured of connectivity to multiple EIS. In turn, EIS vendors must provide only one standard Connector Architecture-compliant resource adapter that has the capability to plug into BEA WebLogic Server.

Note: BEA WebLogic Server 7.0 is completely compliant with J2EE 1.3. Also, since J2EE is backward compatible, you can still run J2EE 1.2 on WebLogic Server 7.0.

26. Question:  Steps For Horizontal Clustering?

Answer: Involves running multiple Java application servers that are run on two or more separate physical machines. Horizontal scaling is more reliable than vertical scaling since there are multiple machines involved in the cluster environment, as compared to only one machine.

Steps for horizontal clustering:

1. Install the Deployment manager. Check Enable administrative security checkbox

2. Configure Deployment Manager: Change the request timeout for SOAP, Web Container Chain,… Also, create a WebSphere Portal Admin user in the local file system based repository using WAS Admin Console.

3. Install the Standalone portal server. This portal install will act as the primary portal node.
4. Configure the WebSphere portal server to use an external database.

5. Federate and cluster the primary portal node

6. Collect files from portal node using ConfigEngine.bat collect-files-for-dmgr task. 

7. Copy the filesforDmgr.zip from primary node to DMGR

8. Expand the filesForDmgr.zip on DMGR and copy the content to appropriate directories

9. Add node to the deployment manager by executing following command on the primary portal node ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-pre-federation

10. Update the deployment manager configuration for new WPS by executing the following command ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-post-federation

11. Create the cluster definition and add the WebSphere_Portal server as a cluster member by executing following command ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-cluster-setup

12. Install Standalone portal server on the secondary portal server

13. Copy database configuration from the primary node to the secondary node

14. Add node to the deployment manager by executing ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-pre-federation command

15. Update the deployment manager configuration for the new WebSphere Portal server by executing the following ConfigEngine script: ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-post-federation 

16. Add this newly federated WebSphere_Portal server as a cluster member to the existing cluster by executing the following ConfigEngine script: ConfigEngine.bat cluster-node-config-cluster-setup. 

27. Question: When Do You Use vi Editor ?

Answer: The vi editor is available on almost all Unix systems. vi can be used from any type of terminal because it does not depend on arrow keys and function keys–it uses the standard alphabetic keys for commands.

vi (pronounced “vee-eye”) is short for “vi”visual editor. It displays a window into the file being edited that shows 24 lines of text. vi is a text editor, not a “what you see is what you get” word processor. vi lets you add, change, and delete text, but does not provide such formatting capabilities as centering lines or indenting paragraphs. 

This help note explains the basics of vi:

  • opening and closing a file
  • moving around in a file
  • elementary editing

vi has many other commands and options not described here. The following resources can help you get started using the vi editor, and are available at the UW University Book Store:

  • “vi Tutorial.” Specialized Systems Consultants (SSC).
  • “vi Reference.” Specialized Systems Consultants (SSC).
  • “Learning the vi Editor.” Linda Lamb, 1990.

28. Question: When Should I Use JTS?

Answer: The JTS package itself contains methods that a client-side or server-side object uses to begin transactions, commit or roll back a transaction, and perform utility functions such as setting the transaction timeout. The JTS methods should be used in CORBA or EJB clients, or in CORBA server objects. Developers implementing EJBs, and who need fine-grained transaction control within beans should use the UserTransaction interface in a bean-managed state. 

To use the JTS methods, code the following import statements in your source:

import oracle.aurora.jts.util.TS;

import javax.jts.util.*;

import org.omg.CosTransactions.*;

The oracle.aurora.jts.The util package is included in the library file aurora_client.jar, which must be in the classpath for all Java sources that use the JTS. 

You use the static methods in the TS class to get the transaction service. 

29. Question: Where are the Examples Located?

Answer: C24 Integration Objects Studio (C24 iO Studio) ships a selection of example Data Models and Transforms along with some Java classes that demonstrate the different ways deployed C24 iO code can be used in application development.

From the iO Studio Homepage, you can click the “Examples” link under the “Downloads” heading. This will install the examples in “My iO Projects/Examples”.

30. Question: Where Can I Learn More About WebLogic JMS?

Answer: These sections briefly review the different Java Message Service (JMS) concepts and features, and describe how they work with other application objects and WebLogic Server. 

It is assumed the reader is familiar with Java programming and JMS 1.1 concepts and features.

  • Overview of the Java Message Service and WebLogic JMS. 
  • Understanding the Messaging Models
  • Value-Added Public JMS API Extensions
  • Understanding the JMS API 

31. Question: What are Deployment Descriptors?

Answer: – A deployment descriptor is a configuration file for a web application or EJB application which is to be deployed to web or EJB container.
– The deployment descriptor should contain standard structural information for all enterprise beans in an EJB application. 
– The file name is EJB-jar.xml, the descriptor of EJB informs the EJB server about the classes that make up the implementation of the bean, both home, and remote interfaces.
– A standard deployment descriptor should contain structural information for each enterprise bean.

32. Question: What are the Middleware Services of the Weblogic Application Server?

Answer: Middleware services of Weblogic Application Server are totally 16+ But I could remember only a few of them
1. Transactions

2.Connection Pooling(JDBC Connection Pooling) 
3.Security(Realms) 

33. Question: What is Stating Modes Are Available In Weblogic Server?

Answer: There are three starting modes are available:

1) Stage mode:

Administration Server copies the deployment files from their original location on the Administration Server machine to the staging directories of each target server.

2) External Stage:

Target servers deploy using local copies of the deployment files, here the Administration Server does not automatically copy the deployment files to targeted servers in external_stage mode. Instead, you must copy the files to the staging directory of each target server before deployment.

3)No Stage:

The Administration Server does not copy deployment unit files. instead, all servers deploy using the same physical copy of the deployment files, which must be directly accessible by the Administration Server and target servers. 

34. Question: What are the Benefits of Classpath?

Answer: Classpath is the path in which JVM searches for class libraries at the time of compiling the Java Application. By setting the CLASSPATH environment variable, JVM invokes the Java API and related classes, supported library files needed for compiling java program. Instead of placing all the applications in the library directory, the applications can be saved in different directories and set the classpath for compiling them.

35. Question: What are the Capabilities of WebLogic Server?

Answer: The main features of WebLogic server include connectors that make it possible for any legacy application on any client to interoperate with server applications, Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) components, resource pooling, and connection sharing that make applications very scalable. An administration console with a user interface makes management tasks more efficient and features such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support for the encryption of data transmissions, as well as authentication and authorization mechanisms, make applications and transactions secure.

36. Question: What are the Deployment Modes in Weblogic?

Answer: The deployment staging mode determines how a module’s archive files are made available to target servers that must deploy the module. WebLogic Server provides three different options for staging archive files: stage mode, no stage mode, and external_stage mode. You can set the staging mode either at the WebLogic Server level or at the application level, which overrides the server setting. 

Stage Mode: Stage mode indicates that the Administration Server copies the deployment files from their original location to the staging directories of each targeted server. For example, if you deploy a J2EE Application to three servers in a cluster, the Administration Server copies the deployment files to directories on each of the three server machines. Each server then deploys the J2EE Application using its local copy of the archive files. 
Stage mode is the default (and preferred) mode when deploying to more than one WebLogic Server instance.

Nostalgia Mode: Nostage mode indicates that the Administration Server does not copy the archive files from their source location. Instead, each targeted server must access the archive files from a single source directory for deployment. For example, if you deploy a J2EE Application to three servers in a cluster, each server must be able to access the same application archive files (from a shared or network-mounted directory) to deploy the application.

In no stage mode, the web application container automatically detects changes to JSPs and servlets.

Nostalgia mode is the default mode when deploying only to the Administration Server (for example, in a single-server domain). You can also select postage mode if you run a cluster of server instances on the same machine.External_stage mode: External_stage mode is similar to stage mode, in that the deployment files must reside locally to each targeted server. However, the Administration Server does not automatically copy the deployment files to targeted servers in external_stage mode; instead, you must ensure that the files are copied to the staging directory of each targeted server.

External_stage mode is the least common deployment staging mode. It is generally used only in environments that are managed by third-party tools that automate the required copying of files. 

37. Question: What are the Modes of Operation For Weblogic Server Domains?

Answer: There are two modes: Development and production mode:

Development mode:

1. You use development mode while you are developing your applications. Development mode uses a relaxed security configuration and enables you to auto-deploy applications.
2. You can use the demonstration digital certificates provided by the WebLogic Server security services. With these certificates, you can design your application to work within environments secured by SSL.
3. WebLogic Server instances can automatically deploy and update applications that reside in the domain_name/applications directory. 
4. When you start a server, the server automatically renames (rotates) its local server log file as server-name.log.n. For the remainder of the server session, the server rotates its local log file whenever the size of the file reaches 500 kilobytes.
5. The default number of threads available to Execute Queues is 15.
6. The default capacity is 15 JDBC connections.

Production mode:

1. You use production mode when your application is running in its final form. A production domain uses full security and may use clusters or other advanced features.
2. A warning message is displayed if you use the demonstration digital certificates.
3. The auto-deployment feature is disabled, so you must use the WebLogic Server Administration Console or the WebLogic.Deployer tool.
4. A server rotates its local log file after the size of the file reaches 500 kilobytes.
5. The default number of threads available to Execute Queues is 25.
6. The default capacity is 25 JDBC connections.

38. Question: What are the Prerequisites For Weblogic Installation?

Answer: The installation procedures explained here are for the Windows platform, and they’re mainly designed to get a working installation of WebLogic Server up and ready so you can play with it. For example, the prerequisites for basic installation require just 1GB of RAM and a 1 GHz processor. As for disk space for the installation, it takes about 1.6GB for the entire installation (including Oracle Coherence and Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse). 

39. Question: What are the Various Types of WebLogic Installations?

Answer: There is a various way of installing WebLogic server.

– Graphical Mode
– Console Mode
– Silence Mode (What are the Various Types of WebLogic Installations

1. Graphical Mode:

Double click the EXE file that you downloaded from the oracle website.

It will come up with this screen which you can click next to provide JDK, Middleware home and finally configure WebLogic server.

2. Console Mode:

wls1034_win32.exe -mode=console –log=filepath

It is like installing using window command window or Unix command shell.

3.Silent Mode:

It is a one-time configuration that can be used to install WebLogic on multiple machines. We need to create a silent.xml file and provide all necessary information for installation including JAVA_HOME, MW_HOME, etc.

40. Question: What Does a ‘stub’ Mean in Weblogic Server?

Answer:The enhancements support for WebLogic Server messages is provided by T3. These enhancements include object replacement, which work in WebLogic Server clusters’ context and HTTP. Java Object Serialization, RMI predation is done by T3. T3 is superset of java Object. Serialization and RMI can be done over T3. 

Between WebLogic Servers, and between programmatic clients & a WebLogic Server cluster, T3 is mandated. To communicate between processes and WebLogic Server, the protocols HTTP and IIOP can be used and optional. The HTTP is used to communicate between a browser and WebLogic Server. The IIOP is used to communicate between an Object Request Broker and WebLogic Server. 

41. Question: What Happen If We Deploy Our Component in Weblogic Server ?

Answer: When you deploy, all open projects associated with the server are deployed. You can use the Project > Close Project command to close projects. You can also specify working sets (described in the Eclipse help system in the Workbench User Guide) to control how much gets built and deployed. 
However, even though an entire application or group of projects was deployed, only the file/folder that you clicked on (to initiate the deploy) will display its results. For example, if you deploy from a page flow component file, that page flow will run in a new browser tab in the editor area. If you deploy a web service, the test client page for that web service will run in a new tab in the editor area. If the page flow or web service relies on other web services to run correctly, it will still work because all components are actually deployed. 

42. Question: What Happens When Database Down in Weblogic?

Answer: Connection pool staus changes to suspended. It tries to poll the connection. It depends on the configuration of the connection pool. I will log an error if application tires to use the connection pool.

43. Question: What is the Important Configuration File in Apache?

Answer: Basically all the web-tier related files (.jsp .class, JSPCompiled files etc.,) get stored in ./wlnotdelete/app_yourapplicaiton directory. This is treated as cache whenever there is the restart of a WebLogic instance happens then the WebLogic server will look-up for the last serviced object status stored in the cache to service for any pending requests. Usually, when your EJB Classes need sessions, JMS object requires persistence, your web-tier may contain static contents then Cache will be used by WebLogic Application Server instance.
Whenever your application is accessed for the first time that fresh deployment of a new version, WebLogic server lookup in this directory if there are older objects persists that will be a conflict with new code objects. This is where the need for removal of cache arises.

Where there is a need for new version deployment we might need to clear the cache when the changes to the new version are not reflected. In the old version WebLogic 8.1 below we used to remove .wldonotdelete folder. In the new version of WebLogic 9.x onwards removal of cache means deleting each server instance’s tmp folder contains cache, stage folders or you can simply remove the tmp folder too provided there should not be configuration changes happen to the server.

Generally for WebLogic 9.x and higher versions.

WIN: C:\bea\user_projects\domains\yourdomain\servers\yourserver\tmp

UNIX: /bea/user_projects/domains/your domain/servers/your server/tmp
you can use the following commands to clear the cache:

WIN: rd C:\bea\user_projects\domains\yourdomain\servers\yourserver\tmp \s

UNIX: rm -rf /bea/user_projects/domains/your domain/servers\yourserver/tmp

Here I am removing all the subdirectories and files in the given directory.

44. Question: What is the Listener in Database?

Answer: A listener is configured with one or more listening protocol addresses, information about supported services, and parameters that control its run-time behavior. The listener configuration is stored in a configuration file named listener.ora.

Because all of the configuration parameters have default values, it is possible to start and use a listener with no configuration. This default listener has a name of LISTENER, supports no services on startup, and listens on the following TCP/IP protocol address:

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host_name)(PORT=1521))

The listener forwards client requests to supported services. These services can be configured statically in the listener. ora file or they can be dynamically registered with the listener. This dynamic registration feature is called service registration. The registration is performed by the PMON process, an instance background process of each database instance that is configured in the database initialization parameter file. Dynamic service registration does not require any manual configuration in the listener.ora file.

45. Question: What is the Advantage of Clustering ?

Answer: In general, Exchange clustering provides high availability by allowing your mission-critical applications to keep running in the event of a failure. Although clustering adds additional complexity to your messaging environment, it provides a number of advantages over using stand-alone (non-clustered) servers.

The following is a general summary of the clustering benefits.

Clustering benefits:

Clustering provides:

Reduced single points of failure through Exchange Virtual Server (EVS) failover functionality.

Ability to perform maintenance and upgrades with limited downtime.

Ability to easily scale up your cluster to a maximum of seven active EVs.

46. Question: What is the Important Configuration File in Apache?

Answer: https configuration files contain one directive per line. The backslash “\” may be used as the last character on a line to indicate that the directive continues onto the next line. There must be no other characters or white space between the backslash and the end of the line.
Arguments to directives are separated by whitespace. If an argument contains spaces, you must enclose that argument in quotes.

Directives in the configuration files are case-insensitive, but arguments to directives are often case sensitive. Lines that begin with the hash character “#” are considered comments and are ignored. Comments may not be included on the same line as a configuration directive. White space occurring before a directive is ignored, so you may indent directives for clarity. Blank lines are also ignored.
The values of variables defined with the Define of or shell environment variables can be used in configuration file lines using the syntax ${VAR}. If “VAR” is the name of a valid variable, the value of that variable is substituted into that spot in the configuration file line, and processing continues as if that text were found directly in the configuration file. Variables defined with Define take precedence over shell environment variables. If the “VAR” variable is not found, the characters ${VAR} are left unchanged, and a warning is logged. Variable names may not contain colon “:” characters, to avoid clashes with RewriteMap’s syntax.

Only shell environment variables defined before the server is started can be used in expansions. Environment variables defined in the configuration file itself, for example with SetEnv, take effect too late to be used for expansions in the configuration file.

The maximum length of a line in normal configuration files, after variable substitution and joining any continued lines, is approximately 16 MiB. In .htaccess files, the maximum length is 8190 characters.

You can check your configuration files for syntax errors without starting the server by using the apachectl configtest or the -t command line option.

You can use mod_info’s -DDUMP_CONFIG to dump the configuration with all included files and environment variables resolved and all comments and non-matching and sections removed. However, the output does not reflect the merging or overriding that may happen for repeated directives.

47. Question: What is the Difference Between Development Mode And Production Mode of Weblogic Server?

Answer:

Development Mode:

1. The default JDK for the development domain is Sun Hotspot.
2. You can use the demo certificates for SSL.
3. Auto deployment(to admin server only) is enabled.
4. Server instances rotate their log files on start-up.
5. Admin Server uses an automatically created boot.properties during start-up.
6. The default maximum capacity for JDBC Datasource is 15.
7. The debugFlag which is used to start the WebLogic Workshop Debugger is enabled.
8. In Development Mode any configuration change is done by a user who doesn’t need him to take a Lock and Edit session.
9. Availability of web service test client.
10. Node manager username and password: Default Admin credentials.
11. Availability of Classloader Analysis Tool: Yes. 
12. Default start parameters when using Sun JDK and the default start WebLogic script : java -client -Xms256m -Xmx512m -XX:CompileThreshold=8000 -XX:PermSize=128m -XX:MaxPermSize=256m. 

Production Mode:

1. The default JDK for the production domain is JRockit.
2. If you use the demo certificates for SSL a warning is displayed.
3. Auto deployment(to admin server only) is disabled.
4. Server instances rotate their log files when it reaches 5MB.
5. Admin Server prompts for username and password during start-up.
6. The default maximum capacity for JDBC Datasource is 25.
7. The debugFlag which is used to start the WebLogic Workshop Debugger is disabled.
8. In Production Mode the user needs to procure a Lock and Edit session before trying to make any configurational changes.
9. No Availability of web service test client.
10. Node manager username and password: Randomly generated
11. Availability of Classloader Analysis Tool: No. 
12. The default starts parameters when using Sun JDK and the default start WebLogic script: java -server -Xms256m -Xmx512m -XX: MaxPermSiz=256m. 

48. Question: What is the Domain in Weblogic Server?

Answer: A WebLogic Server administration domain is a logically related group of WebLogic Server resources. Domains include a special WebLogic Server instance called the Administration Server, which is the central point from which you configure and manage all resources in the domain. Usually, you configure a domain to include additional WebLogic Server instances called Managed Servers. You deploy Web applications, EJBs, and other resources onto the Managed Servers and use the Administration Server for configuration and management purposes only.

Multiple Managed Servers can be grouped into clusters, which enable you to balance loads and provide failover protection for critical applications while using a single Administration Server simplifies the management of the Managed Server instances.

System administration in WebLogic Server is based on the J2EE Management model, in which each instance of a Web application server resource type is represented by a J2EE Managed Object (JMO). In WebLogic Server, each JMO is a wrapper for a corresponding MBean. You accomplish many WebLogic Server administration tasks by accessing MBeans, either directly using JMX, or through a JMX client like the WebLogic Administration Console or WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST).

49. Question: What is the function of T3 in WebLogic Server?

Answer: The enhancements support for WebLogic Server messages is provided by T3. These enhancements include object replacement, which works in WebLogic Server clusters’ context and HTTP. Java Object Serialization, RMI predation is done by T3. T3 is a superset of java Object. Serialization and RMI can be done over T3. 

Between WebLogic Servers, and between programmatic clients & a WebLogic Server cluster, T3 is mandated. To communicate between processes and WebLogic Server, the protocols HTTP and IIOP can be used and optional. The HTTP is used to communicate between a browser and a WebLogic Server. The IIOP is used to communicate between an Object Request Broker and WebLogic Server. 

50. Question: What is the Name of Default JVM That is Made Used For WebLogic?

Answer: The sun hotspot JDK default is made used for development, JRockit is the one used for the production of WebLogic 11g as well as 12c. The operating system is another factor that helps in choosing the certified JDK JVM.

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